【#1】How To Count Words In Excel

There is one option which I always wish Excel should have and that’s count number of words from a cell.

If you work in MS Word there is an inbuilt option on the status bar which shows you how many words are there in the sheet.

But when it comes to Excel there is no such option to count words. You can count the number of cells which have text but not actual words in them.

As you know, in Excel, we have functions and you can use them to calculate almost everything. You can create a formula that can count words from a cell.

Today in this post, you will learn how to count words in Excel from a cell, or a range of cells or even from the entire worksheet. And I’ll also show you how to count a specific word from a range of cells.

Four Different ways to Count Words in Excel

Now without any ado, let’s get started.

1. The Formula to Count Words from a Cell

To count words from a cell you need to combine LEN function with SUBSTITUTE function . And the formula will be (Text is in cell A1):

=LEN(A1)-LEN(SUBSTITUTE(A1," ",""))+1

When you refer to a cell using this formula, it will return 7 in the result. And yes, you have a total of 7 words in the cell.

Before getting into this formula just think this way. In a normal sentence if you have eight words then you will definitely have 7 spaces in those words.

Right?

That means you will always have one word more than the spaces. The idea is simple: If you want to count the words, count the spaces and add one in it. Now, to understand this formula you need to split it into three parts.

In the first part, you have used LEN function to count the numbers of characters from the cell A1.

At this point, you have an equation like this.

The total number of characters with spaces and the total number of characters without spaces.

And when you subtract both of these numbers gets the number of spaces and in the end, you have to add one in it. It returns 7 in the result which is the total number of words in the cell.

When you use the above formula it will return 1 even if the cell is blank so it’s better to wrap it with IF function to avoid this problem.

This formula will first check the cell and only return word count if there is a value in the cell.

Apart from the above formulas, I have written a small code to create a UDF for this. This code will help you to create a custom function which will simply return the word count.

In short, you don’t need to combine any functions.

End Function

Let me tell you how to use it.

    First of all, enter this code in VBA editor.
    And then come back to your worksheet, and enter “=MyWordCount(” and refer to the cell in which you have value.

And, it will return the word count.

2. Count Words from a Range of Cells

Now let’s come to the next level.

And here you need to count words from a range of cells instead of a single cell.

The good news is you just need to use the same formula (just a simple change) which you have used above.

In the above formula, A1:A11 is the range of cells and when you enter the formula it returns 77 in the result.

here’s how it works

Do you remember that SUMPRODUCT can take arrays? So when you use it, it returns an array where you have a count of words for each cell.

And in the end, it sums those counts and tells you the count of words in the column.

3. Word Count from Entire Worksheet with VBA Code

This code is one of my useful macro codes list which I use in my work and it can help you to count all the words from a worksheet.

Sub Word_Count_Worksheet()

Dim WordCnt As Long

Dim rng As Range

Dim S As String

Dim N As Long

N = 0

N = Len(S) – Len(Replace(S, ” “, “”)) + 1

End If

WordCnt = WordCnt + N

Next rng

End Sub

4. Count a Specific Word/Text String from a Range

Here you have a different situation.

Let’s say you need to count a specific word from a range of cells or to check the number of times a value appears in a column.

Below you have a range of four cells and from this range, you need to count the count of occurrence of the word “Monday” . For this, the formula is:

And when you enter it, it returns the count of word “Monday”.

It returns the count of the word (word’s frequency) from the range not the count of the cells which have that word.

Monday is there four times in three cells.

…let me explain how it works

To understand this function, again you need to split it into four parts.

In the first part, LEN function returns an array of the count of characters from the cells.

The second part returns an array of the count of character from the cells by removing the word “Monday”.

In the third part, LEN function returns the length of characters of wor word “Monday”.

After that, subtracts part one from part two and then pide it with part three…

…it returns an array with the count of the word “Monday” from each cell.

In the fourth part, SUMPRODUCT returns the sum of this array and give the count of “Monday” from the range.

Sample File

Conclusion

Whenever you are typing some text in a cell or a range of cells you can these methods to keep a check on the word count.

I wish someday in future Excel will get this option to count words. But, for the time being, you have all these awesome methods.

Which method do you like the most?

【#2】Good Sentence Starters For Different Purposes ✍

The truth is, starting a sentence in an engaging manner can be difficult sometimes. This is also true when it comes to finding the perfect words or phrases to connect ideas. Once you get a good grasp of evidence sentence starters, transitional words, and use an essaychecker to proofread your paper, a reader will find your paper or essay irresistible from the beginning.

Why Use Sentence Starters?

Whether they are sentence starters for essays or other academic papers, let’s start by outlining the reasons for using special words or phrases to start sentences:

  • It aids you to come up with more nuanced and richer ideas, instead of the regular habit of creating simple subject-verb sentence structure.
  • When you use transitions and good starting words, you are able to link the ideas in your essays more effectively.
  • These well-selected words make your academic and other papers sound more credible as well as professional.
  • As mentioned earlier, well-chosen concluding sentence starters will keep your reader engaged and curious about what you are about to say next, rather than being easily pdicted.
  • Your writing will stand out from the pack if it uses transitional and linking words effectively at every necessary point.
  • Your ideas and concepts are more coherent when you use transition sentence starters.

How Do You Use Sentence Starter Lists?

The major rule is to recognize the different purposes of transition words and sentence starters.

The different purposes and some of the highly suggested transition words/sentence starters include the following;

#1: To introduce an idea

Introduction sentence starters should be used to introduce an essay or writing, paragraph, as well as subsequent concepts or ideas in writing. There are tons of words that are great for this purpose. The list would include the following:

  • In this paper…
  • Here, we will discuss…
  • The subject of discuss…
  • …and so on

#2: To compare and contrast

If your intention is to compare and contrast, you should use transitional or sentence starters that are best suited for this purpose. This is a great way to carry the reader along as you start comparing or contrasting ideas. Also, it’s a good practice when you working on technology capstone projects, IT, engineering and others. Some good examples for this purpose include;

Compare

  • Similarly…
  • In comparison…
  • In the same manner…
  • Likewise…
  • Just like before…
  • Complementary to

Contrast

  • Conversely…
  • In contrast…
  • However…
  • Other than…
  • On the contrary…
  • On the other hand…
  • Nevertheless…

#3: Adding ideas in your writing

If you’re explaining steps in a process such as steps required to carry out a titration in a science laboratory, you would be better off using transition words for introducing the steps.

Examples of such words are:

  • Next…
  • Then…
  • Another essential step…
  • Subsequently…
  • Another…
  • Next to this…
  • The following step…

Try using an online sentence checker to correct your writing.

#4: Sequence/ time

Word starters and transition words are also useful in narrating something that happened. In this case, you should use the appropriate transition words for this purpose.

To make sure you punctuate sentence starters correctly, use sentence quality checker that will suggest the needed changes right away.

#5: General sentence starters

Some words are indeed notable for being good sentence starters. The list will include the following: although, I would like to, first, meanwhile, therefore, subsequently, while, I would like to, moreover, in general, in addition, furthermore.

#6: Conclusion sentence starters

Good writers do not just end their essays orwritings abruptly. Whether you are concluding an idea, concept, paragraph or the entire writing, using transition words that denote conclusion shows you are well organized and professional. It also portrays that you have a good grasp of the academic language.

Some of the words that are suitable for concluding or summarizing would include the following;

Other Transition Words and Sentence Starters

The six purposes above are not exhaustive of the different purposes to engage transition or word starters. Other purposes and their examples would include the following:

  • To give examples: For example, for instance, as an illustration of, to illustrate this, here’s an instance, such as, exemplifies, shows, demonstrates chúng tôi so on.
  • To show prior or background ideas: Historically, in the past, customarily, over time, at first, primarily, originally, formally, prior to, chúng tôi so on.
  • Time connectives: Lastly, finally, afterwards, after a while, following that, next, subsequently, to begin with, before chúng tôi so on.
  • Making emphasis: Emphatically, in essence, again, as a highlight, as an emphasis, to lay emphasis, it is important to state that, essentially, in reiterating this chúng tôi so on.

If you want to craft a unique thesis, the best way to avoid plagiarism and improve the quality of your writing is to use a sentence checker.

How to Choose Transition Words

Now, it is important to mention this; avoid repeating transition words. Each purpose has tons of words you can choose from. So, avoid making your writing boring by excessively repeating sentence starters or transition words in your paper or essay.

Also, remember to place a comma after a transition word, followed by the subject. The key vocabulary or terminologies of your essay should not be played down as well. And, you should integrate signal words when necessary.

In order to improve your writing in the quickest possible manner, there are some examples of funny sentences in English that would help you remember grammar rules.

Use good sentence starters and grab the reader’s attention straight away!

【#3】35 Perfect Ways Of Starting Sentences In English!

If you are new here please read this first.

Your ability to START a sentence WITHOUT much THINKING!

Just think about this: how many times have you found yourself in a situation when you have to say something in English but you just can’t say the FIRST word?

You kind of know what you want to say, but you just can’t START the sentence and as a result you start stressing out and you end up feeling as if you totally suck as an English speaker …

But try this simple strategy for a change:

  • Memorize the phrase “Well, to be honest with you…”
  • Whenever you’re asked a question, start your answer by using the above phrase…
  • You’ll realize that for some strange reason it’s much, much easier to provide an answer to the question once you’ve started it with “Well, to be honest with you…”!

In reality there’s nothing that strange about it.

It’s just a simple matter of enabling yourself to START a sentence, and once the words start flowing, there’s no stopping them!

  • Repeat them.
  • Memorize them.
  • Do some spoken English practice with yourself.
  • Use them in your daily English conversations with others.

And you’ll realize that using these phrases as a way of starting your English sentences makes a HUGE difference in your fluency, you can take my word for it, my friends ❗

Universal English Sentence Starters: Statements, Disagreeing, Breaking the Truth

Disagreeing

NEW! No offense, but… – another phrase used to let the other person know that what’s going to follow will potentially offend them, so always limit these kinds of conversations to the bare minimum and use this English sentence starter only when really necessary: “NO OFFENSE, BUT I think you looked way better at the last party – just my opinion!”

NEW! Well, it’s all nice and well, but.. . – it’s always a good strategy to agree to disagree, so basically what you’re doing in this English sentence starter is – you’re pointing out that by and large everything is nice and well to make it easier for the other person to stomach the truth that’s about to follow: “WELL, IT’S ALL NICE AND WELL, BUT for some reason I just don’t think Alex is the type of guy our daughter should be hanging out with!”

NEW! We’ll just have to agree to disagree! – this is a great phrase to use in a situation when it’s obvious that both of you have a completely different opinion and you just won’t come to an agreement. This should be the final statement in the conversation and there’s no point to continue the argument beyond this point.

Expssing Uncertainty

Obviously, you can’t start using all 35 English sentence starters within a matter of days, but even if you manage to learn and use 5 of them, you’re going to notice a definite increase of your oral fluency!

Cheers,

Robby

P.S. Would you like to find out why I’m highlighting some of the text in red? Read this article and you’ll learn why it’s so important to learn idiomatic expssions and how it will help you to improve your spoken English!

P.S.S. Are you serious about your spoken English improvement? Check out my English Harmony System HERE!

P.S. Are you serious about your spoken English improvement? Check out the English Harmony System HERE!

【#4】List Of Unusual Words Beginning With M

macadamize

to cover a road with small broken stones

macarism

a beatitude; taking pleasure in another’s joy

macarize

to declare to be happy or blessed

macaroni

nonsense; foolishness

macaronic

muddled or mixed-up

macerate

to steep or soak; to break up; to emaciate

macerator

a person who fasts and becomes emaciated

machair

low-lying sandy beach

machairodont

sabre-toothed

machicolation

space between corbels in a parapet

machinule

tool used by surveyors to obtain right angle

macilent

lean; excessively thin

mackinaw

heavy napped and felted wool cloth

mackintosh

lightweight rubberized waterproof cotton

macon

smoked salted mutton

macrobiote

long-lived organism

macrocephalic

having an abnormally large head

macrocephalous

having a large head

macrocosm

large and complex structure considered as a whole

macrography

viewing an object with the naked eye

macrology

much talk with little to say; redundancy; pleonasm

macromancy

pination using large objects

macromania

delusion that objects are larger than natural size

macron

straight line placed above vowel to indicate stress

macrophobia

fear of prolonged waiting

macropicide

killer of kangaroos

macropodine

of, like or pertaining to kangaroos

macropterous

having large wings or fins

macroscian

one with a long shadow; one who inhabits polar regions

macrotone

macron; straight line placed above vowel to indicate stress

macrural

having a long tail

mactation

killing or slaughter of a sacrificial victim

macular

spotted; patchy

maculation

the act of spotting or staining

maculomancy

pination using spots

madapollam

fine cotton cloth

madarosis

loss of eyelashes or eyebrows

madder

red dye made from brazil wood; a reddish or red-orange colour

madefy

to moisten or make wet

maderization

wine becoming rusty in colour and flat in taste

madescent

growing damp

madoline

vegetable slicer with adjustable blade

madras

fine plain-woven cotton or silk

maenadic

furious; bacchanalian

maffick

to celebrate exuberantly and boisterously

magadis

ancient bridged stringed instrument

maggotorium

place where maggots are bred for sale to fishers

magianism

teachings or philosophy of the magi

magirics

art of cookery

magisterial

in the manner of a teacher or magistrate

magisterium

teaching function of the Catholic church

magistral

of, like or pertaining to a master or teacher

magistricide

killer of one’s teacher

magnality

wonderful or great thing

magnanerie

art of raising silkworms

magnetics

study of magnetism

magnetograph

instrument for recording measurements of magnetic fields

magnetometer

instrument for measuring intensity of magnetic fields

magneton

unit of the quantized magnetic moment of a particle

magnicaudate

having a long tail

magnificat

canticle in praise of the Virgin Mary

magniloquent

speaking in a grand or pompous style

magomancy

pination by magic or sorcery

magpiety

garrulousness

mahout

one who rides or drives elephants

maidan

open plain; open space near a town

maieutic

bringing out latent thoughts; socratic

maillot

tights worn by a ballet dancer

mainmast

sailing ship’s principal mast

mainour

stolen goods discovered on thief

mainpernor

one who gives mainprise

mainprise

surety for the appearance of a prisoner at trial

mainsail

principal sail on a ship’s mainmast

mainsheet

rope by which mainsail is trimmed and secured

mainstay

stay that extends from the main-top to the foot of the foremast

majolica

elaborate glazed Italian pottery

makaf

hyphen used to join words in Hebrew texts

malabathrum

dried leaf used in ancient times to make perfumed ointments

malacissation

act of making soft or supple

malacoid

made of a soft or fleshy substance

malacology

study of molluscs

malacophilous

pollinated by snails

malacophonous

soft-voiced

malagma

emollient plaster

malaguena

Spanish dance performed by a couple, similar to the fandango

malapert

bold; forward; saucy

malapropism

misapplication of words without mispronunciation

malar

of, like or pertaining to the cheek

malariology

study of malaria

malarkey

humbug; nonsense

malaxage

softening of clay by kneading it

malaxate

to soften by kneading, rubbing or mixing with a liquid

malbrouck

arboreal monkey of West Africa

malchus

short cutting sword

malefic

doing mischief; producing evil

malfeasance

evil-doing; illegal activities

malgrado

notwithstanding

maliferous

harmful; unhealthy

malinger

to feign sickness in order to avoid duty or work

malism

the belief that the world is evil

malleation

hammering; a hammer-mark or dent

malleiform

shaped like a hammer

mallophagous

eating wool or fleece

malloseismic

suffering from frequent and severe earthquakes

malm

calcareous loam used in making brick

malmsey

sweet perfumed wine

maltha

thick mineral pitch

maltster

one who makes or deals in malt

malvaceous

of, like or pertaining to the mallow family of plants

malversation

corruption in office; corrupt administration; misconduct

mambo

Cuban ballroom dance resembling the rumba or cha-cha

mamelon

rounded hill or protuberance

mammalogy

study of mammals

mammer

to stammer; to waver; to be undecided

mammetry

idolatry; idols collectively

mammiferous

having breasts

mammiform

shaped like a breast

mammiliform

shaped like a nipple

mammock

scrap or shred; a broken piece

mammogenic

promoting growth of the milk glands

mammon

riches; the wealthy; the upper classes

mammonism

devotion to pursuit of wealth

mammose

shaped like a breast

mammothrept

spoiled child

mamzer

illegitimate child

manal

of, like or pertaining to the hand

mancipation

legal transfer by actual or symbolic sale

manciple

steward of a college or monastery; purveyor

mandament

command; order

mandamus

writ instructing that an action should be performed

mandarism

government with a large bureaucracy

mandative

of, like or pertaining to commands or leadership

mandibuliform

shaped like a mandible or jaw-bone

mandorla

oval panel containing a work of art; elliptical halo around holy person

mandrel

axle of a circular saw

mandriarch

founder or leader of a monastic order

manducate

to chew or eat

mandylion

loose outer garment worn over armour

manège

the art of horsemanship

mangabey

long-tailed tropical African monkey

manganiferous

bearing manganese

mangonel

medieval war engine for throwing stones

manicate

having a woolly growth that can be peeled off

manicism

left-handedness

maniform

having the shape of a hand

maniple

clerical vestment worn on the left arm

manometer

instrument for measuring pssure of a liquid or gas

manqué

having had unfulfilled ambition; failing to achieve expectation

manrope

rope used as a handrail on a ship

mansionary

residence; mansions

mansuetude

meekness; tameness; sweetness of temper

mantelletta

knee-length sleeveless garment worn by Catholic cardinals and bishops

mantic

of, like or pertaining to pination; prophetic; pinely inspired

mantissa

decimal part of logarithm

mantology

fortune-telling

manubrial

shaped like a handle

manubrium

any handle-like structure

manuduction

careful guidance; leading by hand

manumission

emancipation; freedom from slavery

manurance

cultivation

manustupration

masturbation

manzello

variant form of soprano saxophone

mappemond

map of the world

maquette

small model of something to be made on a larger scale

maquis

guerrilla resistance force

marabout

thin downy silk

maraging

process by which alloy is slowly cooled in the air

marah

bitterness; something bitter

marasmus

wasting away of the body; emaciation due to malnutrition

marc

refuse from winemaking

marcella

cotton or linen in twill weave

marcescent

withering without falling off

marchpane

old name for marzipan

marcidity

state of great leanness

marcottage

propagation of trees by stripping ring of bark and covering with moss

margaritiferous

pearl-bearing

margaritomancy

pination using pearls

maricolous

living in the sea

mariculture

cultivation of aquatic flora and fauna

marigenous

produced by or in the sea

marigraph

instrument for recording tide levels

marimbaphone

marimba with steel keys

Mariolatry

worship of the virgin mother

Mariology

study of the Virgin Mary

maritage

right of feudal lord to arrange marriages of vassals

mariticide

killing or killer of one’s husband

maritodespotism

ruthless domination by a husband

marivaudage

pciosity in literary style or expssion

markhor

reddish-grey central Asian wild goat

marl

clay used as fertilizer

marline

small rope wound about larger rope to keep it from fraying

marmarosis

conversion of limestone into marble

marmoreal

of or like marble

marocain

ribbed crepe fabric

marquetry

furniture inlaid with multicoloured wood, ivory, or metal

marquisette

sheer meshed cloth

marrano

Jew converted to Christianity to avoid persecution

marry

expssion of surprised agreement

martello

circular fort for coastal defence

martext

ignorant pacher

martinet

a strict disciplinarian; one who adheres to rules

martingale

lower stay of rope used to sustain strain of the forestays

martingale

strap between horse’s forelegs to keep its head down

martlet

heraldic repsentation of a bird without feet

martyrium

shrine erected in memory of a martyr

martyrolatry

excessive devotion to martyrs

martyrology

study of martyrs

marver

marble or iron slab on which molten glass is rolled

mascaron

grotesque face on a door-knocker

maschalephidrosis

massive sweating of the armpits

mascle

diamond-shaped plate or scale

mascon

concentration of dense mass beneath the moon’s surface

maskirovka

use of deception or camouflage as military stratagem

masseter

muscle used to move the lower jaw

masterate

degree or title of a master

masticate

to chew; to knead mechanically

mastigophorous

bearing a whip

mastoid

like a nipple or teat

mastology

study of mammals

matachin

Spanish ritualised sword-dance or battle dance

matelassé

having a quilted ornamentation; fabric with raised pattern as if quilted

materialism

belief that matter is the only extant substance

materteral

of or resembling an aunt

mathemancy

pination by counting

mathematicaster

minor or inferior mathematician

mathematicism

belief that everything is expssible in mathematical terms

mathesis

mental discipline; learning or wisdom

matinal

of, like or pertaining to the morning

matins

prayer service held in early morning hours

matrass

long-necked chemical flask

matrical

of, like or pertaining to a womb or a matrix

matricular

of, like or pertaining to a register

matriherital

of, like or pertaining to inheritance along the female line

matriotism

love for country or other institution when regarded as a mother

matripotestal

of, like or pertaining to the power of mothers

matroclinic

more like the mother than the father

matryoshka

Russian hollow wooden doll

mattock

pickaxe for loosening soil

mattoid

person on borderline between sanity and insanity

maturescent

becoming mature

matutinal

of, like or pertaining to the morning; happening early in the day

matutolypea

getting up on the wrong side of the bed

maudlin

tearfully sentimental

maugre

in spite of; notwithstanding

maulstick

stick used by painters to steady the hand

maunder

to grumble; to drivel; to mutter

maundy

custom of sovereign washing feet of poor or giving alms

mavrodaphne

sweet dark red Greek wine

maxillary

of, like or pertaining to a jaw

maximalism

uncompromising adherence to extreme demands

maxixe

Brazilian ballroom dance resembling the two-step

maxwell

unit of magnetic flux

maya

illusion; the world of phenomena

mazarine

rich blue or reddish-blue colour

mazer

hardwood drinking bowl

mazocacothesis

abnormal position of the placenta

mazology

mammalogy; study of mammals

mazopathia

any disease of the placenta

mazurka

Polish folk dance in moderate triple measure

mazut

petroleum residue after distillation

mazy

dizzy; confused; labyrinthine; convoluted

mazzard

wild sweet cherry

mazzebah

ancient Jewish sacred stone pillar

mbalax

West African popular music

mbaqanga

jazz-influenced southern African popular music style

mbira

African musical instrument made of a hollow resonator and metal vibrating strips

meable

easily penetrable

meatus

opening of a passage or canal

mecate

old Mexican measure of about one-tenth of an acre

mechanism

belief that life is explainable by mechanical forces

mechanography

mechanical reproduction of art

mechanolatry

worship of machines

mechanomorphic

having the form of a machine

mecometer

instrument for measuring length

meconium

first feces of a newborn child

meconology

study of or treatise concerning opium

meconomancy

pination using sleep

meconophagist

consumer of opium or heroin

mediagenic

able to psent a good image in the media

medianic

of, like or pertaining to spiritualists, mediums or prophets

medicament

externally applied curative treatment

medicaster

quack; charlatan

meditabund

absorbed in meditation

medius

the middle finger

medullary

consisting of or resembling marrow or pith

medusiform

resembling a jellyfish

meedless

undeserving; unrewarded

meerkat

small long-tailed African ground squirrel or mongoose

megacerine

extinct giant deer

megachiropteran

of, like or pertaining to fruit bats

megalith

large rough stone used as a monument

megalography

artistic depiction of legendary or significant events

megameter

instrument for determining longitude by observing stars

megaprosopous

having a large face

megascope

instrument for projecting an enlarged image

megascopic

visible to the naked eye

megathermic

surviving only in tropical climates

megistotherm

plant requiring very high temperatures

megrim

dizziness; migraine; low spirits

mehari

camel used for racing

meiosis

understatement of size or importance for rhetorical effect

mekometer

range-finder

melalgia

pain in the limbs

melanic

black; very dark

melaniferous

containing or bearing melanin

melano

abnormally dark person or animal

melanochroic

dark-skinned

melasma

dark patch of skin

meldometer

instrument for measuring melting points of substances

meleagrine

of, like or pertaining to turkeys

melichrous

having a honey-like colour

meliorism

the belief the world tends to become better

meliphagous

feeding upon honey

melisma

tune; melodic embellishment; ornamentation

melismatic

florid in melody

melittology

study of bees

mellaginous

of, like or pertaining to or resembling honey

melliferous

producing or forming honey

mellification

honey-making

melliloquent

speaking harmoniously or sweetly

mellisonant

sweet-sounding

mellivorous

honey-eating

melodikon

keyboard instrument that brings tuning forks in contact with rotating cone

melologue

recitation with musical accompaniment

melomania

craze for music

melopepon

any of various kinds of squash

melopoeia

composition of music

melton

strong and smooth heavy woollen cloth

membral

of, like or pertaining to the limbs rather than the trunk

memoriter

from memory; by heart

menald

speckled; spotted

menarche

first menstruation

mendaciloquence

lying speech

mendacity

insincerity; inclination to tell falsehoods

mendicant

member of impoverished religious order

menisciform

shaped like a crescent

meniscus

crescent-shaped object; concave lens

menology

register or calendar of saints’ days

mensal

of, like or pertaining to the dinner-table; monthly

menstruum

solvent used in the pparation of drugs

mensuration

measuring to find the dimensions of things

mental

of, like or pertaining to the chin

mentalism

belief that the world can be explained as aspect of the mind

mentatiferous

telepathic

mentation

thought; cogitation; cognition

menticide

reduction of mind by psychological pssure

mentonniere

armour covering the chin, neck, and lower part of the face

mephitic

foul-smelling

meracious

pure; unmixed

mercedary

pertaining to the giving or receiving of wages

mercer

dealer in small wares or textiles

mercurial

volatile; fluctuating

merporous

dung-eating

merdurinous

composed of urine and feces

merengue

Caribbean ballroom dance in which feet are frequently dragged

mereology

study of part-whole relationships

meretricious

of, like or pertaining to prostitution; superficially attractive but lacking value

merino

soft wool of the merino sheep; any soft merino-like wool or wool and cotton cloth

merism

rhetorical device of contrasting two parts of a whole

meristic

pided into parts or segments

meritocracy

government by the meritorious

merlon

narrow wall in battlement between embrasures

merocracy

government by a part of the citizenry

merogenesis

segmentation

meromorphic

fractional

meronym

word whose relation to another is a part to the whole

meropia

partial blindness

mersion

dipping; as in baptism

mesail

movable visor of a helmet

mésalliance

unsuitable marriage

mesic

adapted to life with a moderate supply of moisture

mesnalty

feudal estate

mesochroic

having skin colour intermediate between light and dark

mesocracy

government by the middle classes

mesotherm

plant living only in moderate climates

mesozeugma

placement of a word referring to two different clauses between them

mesquin

mean; ungracious

messaline

soft lightweight silk with a satin weave

messianism

belief in a single messiah or saviour

messuage

house with land and auxiliary buildings

metabasis

transition; transfer; in rhetoric, movement from one topic to another

metabiosis

reliance of an organism on another for environment

metachronism

an error of dating an event too late

metachrosis

ability of animals to change colour

metage

official weighing of goods; charge for such weighing

metagnostic

incomphensible; beyond understanding

metagraphy

transliteration

metagrobolize

to mystify; to puzzle out

metalepsis

metonymy of a double or indirect kind

metalliferous

bearing metal

metallogenic

metal occurring as an ore as opposed to in rocks

metallogeny

study of the origin and distribution of metal deposits

metallography

study of the structure and constitution of metals

metallophone

instrument like the xylophone but with metal bars

metallurgy

study of alloying and treating metals

metameric

of, like or pertaining to serial pision or segmentation of body

metanalysis

incorrect placement of ‘n’ at start of word following a nindefinite article

metanoia

repentance; fundamental change in character

metanomen

metaphorical name

metaphony

umlaut; change in vöwel sound due to nearby consonant

metaphrase

turning of prose into verse or vice versa

metaphrast

one who produces a metaphrase

metaphysics

study of principles of nature and thought

metaphysis

change in form; metamorphosis

metaplasm

alteration in spelling of a word by adding, removing, or transposing letters

metapolitics

study of politics in theory or abstract

metapsychology

study of nature of the mind

metastasis

removal from one place to another; rapid transition in argument

metasthenic

having strong haunches or hindquarters

metastrophe

mutual exchange

metathesis

transposition of sounds or letters of a word

métayage

system of agricultural labour with share of produce as wages

metempirical

beyond the scope of knowledge

metempsychosis

passing of soul after death into another body

metemptosis

omission of day from calendar to correct lunar calendar

metensomatosis

movement of soul into new body before or after death

meteorism

abdominal cramps and swelling due to flatulence

meteoritics

the study of meteors

meteorograph

instrument recording a variety of meteorological observations

meteorography

written description of weather

meteoromancy

pination by studying meteors

methanometer

instrument for detecting psence of methane

metheglin

mead; honey ale

methinks

I believe; I think

methomania

morbid craving for alcohol

métier

profession, occupation, calling or business

metonymy

figurative use of word to name an attribute of its subject

metope

front, forehead or frontal surface

metopic

of, like or pertaining to the forehead

metopomancy

pination using the forehead or face

metoposcopy

fortune-telling or judgement of character by the lines of the forehead

metrics

study of versification

metrocracy

government by mothers or women; matriarchy

metrology

science of weights and measures

metromania

insatiable desire for writing verse

metronymy

system of naming after the mother’s or female line

metrophobia

fear of poetry

metropolitan

archbishop holding authority over other bishops

meuse

space through which animal track passes

mew

to shed, moult or change

mezzotint

method of copper engraving with even gradation of tones

mho

unit of electrical conductance

miasma

foul vapours from rotting matter; unwholesome air

micaceous

consisting of or made of mica

micrander

dwarf male plant

microanatomy

study of microscopic tissues

microbarograph

instrument for recording minute changes in atmospheric pssure

microbiology

study of microscopic organisms

microcalorimeter

instrument for measuring tiny quantities of heat

microcephalic

having a very small head

microclimatology

study of local climates

micrograph

instrument used to write on a very small scale

micrography

description of objects observed under a microscope

microlith

very small stone tool

micrology

study or discussion of trivialities

micromancy

pination using small objects

micromania

pathological self-depcation or belief that one is very small

micrometer

instrument for measuring very small distances

microminiaturization

extreme miniaturization used in making electronic components

micronometer

instrument for measuring short periods of time

micropalaeontology

study of microscopic fossils

microphagous

feeding on small creatures or plants

microphyllous

having small leaves

microphytology

study of very small plant life

micropodal

having extremely small feet

micropsia

disease causing objects to appear smaller than actual size

micropyle

microscopic orifice

microscopy

study of minute objects

microseismograph

instrument for recording small or distant earthquakes

microseismometer

instrument for measuring small or distant earthquakes

microsomatous

having a small body

microtome

instrument used to cut very small sections of something

micrurgy

dissection under magnification or under a microscope

micturition

the act of urinating

mida

larva of the bean-fly

midlenting

custom of giving gifts to parents on mid-Lent Sunday

mignon

small and dainty

migraineur

one who suffers from migraines

mil

unit of 1/1000 inch used for measuring thickness of wire

mileometer

instrument for recording distance travelled in miles

miliary

like or concerning millet seeds

militaster

soldier without skill or ability

milleflori

glassware made of coloured rods embedded in clear glass

millenarianism

belief that an ideal society will be produced in the near future

millesimal

thousandth; consisting of thousandth parts

milliad

millennium; period of a thousand years

milliammeter

instrument for recording very small electrical currents

millionocracy

government by millionaires

millocracy

government by mill owners

milquetoast

very timid; unassertive person

milvine

of, like or pertaining to kites and similar birds

mimesis

rhetorical imitation of another’s words or mannerisms

mimetic

imitative; of, like or pertaining to mimicry

mimography

written repsentation of signs

minacious

threatening

minargent

alloy of copper, silver and aluminum

minauderie

display of affectation

mineralography

study and description of minerals

mineralogy

study of minerals

miniaceous

colour of reddish lead

miniate

to decorate with rubrics; to illuminate a manuscript

miniaturist

one who paints miniature pictures

minify

to diminish, in appearance or reality

minim

unit of liquid volume equal to 1/480 fluid ounces

minimifidian

having the smallest possible degree of faith

minimism

inclination to reduce a dogma to the least possible

minium

vermilion; red lead

miniver

ermine in winter coat; ermine or squirrel fur

minnesinger

medieval troubadour or poet

minster

church associated with a monastery

minuend

number from which another is to be subtracted

minuet

slow and stately Baroque dance in 3/4 time

minutious

paying undue attention to minutiae

miosis

abnormal contraction of the pupil of the eye

miothermic

of, like or pertaining to temperature conditions of the psent day

mirabiliary

miracle worker

mirador

belvedere or watchtower; architectural feature with good view

mirific

wonder-working; marvellous

misacceptation

misinterptation

misaunter

misbeseem

to be unsuited or unsuitable to

miscegene

person of mixed racial heritage

miscellanarian

writer of miscellanies

misericord

ledge in church to lean against while standing; forgiveness or mercy

misfeasance

doing of a lawful act in a wrongful manner

mislight

to lead astray by a light

misocainea

hatred of new ideas

misocapnic

hating tobacco or its smoke

misoclere

one who hates the clergy

misogallic

hating France or the French

misology

hatred of reason or knowledge

misoneism

hatred of novelty

misopaedia

hatred of children

misosophy

hatred of knowledge or wisdom

misotheism

hatred of God or deities

misprise

to scorn; to slight; to undervalue

misprision

mistake; overlooking of a crime of another

missal

book containing complete service for mass

mistigris

variation of poker where blank card can have any value

misyoke

to yoke or marry unsuitably

miter

high headdress worn by bishop or archbishop

mithridate

antidote to poison

mithridatism

immunity to poison by taking increasingly large doses

miticide

agent which kills mites

mitogenic

causing cell pision

mitrailleur

machine-gunner

mitrate

shaped like a mitre or bonnet

mitriform

mitre-shaped

mittimus

warrant granted for sending a charged person to jail

mixotrophic

combining different modes of nutrition

mizmaze

labyrinth; bewilderment

mizzen

three-masted vessel; aft sail of such a vessel

mizzenmast

mast aft or next aft of the mainmast in a ship

mizzle

to rain in small drops

mnemon

unit of memory, largely hypothetical

mnemonist

one from whose memory nothing is erased

mnemotechny

system for improving memory

mnesic

of, like or pertaining to memory

mobilism

belief that nothing is fixed

mobocracy

government by mobs or crowds

mockado

inferior quality woollen fabric

modalism

belief that the Father, Son and Holy Spirit are three modes of a single entity

modillion

ornamental bracket under Corinthian or other column

modish

fashionable; stylish

modiste

a maker or seller of fashionable dresses and hats

modius

cylindrical headdress of the gods

modulo

taking into account

modulus

number leaving same remainder when pided into two others

mofette

volcanic opening in the earth emitting carbon dioxide

mofussil

provincial; rural

mogadore

ribbed silk used in making neckties

mogigraphia

writing only with difficulty

mogigraphy

cramped writing; writer’s cramp

mogilalia

speaking only with difficulty

mohair

fabric made from silky hair of angora goats

moineau

small flat bastion that protects fortification when being built

moiré

watered appearance on cloth or metal

moirologist

mourner for hire

molariform

shaped like a molar

molendinar

of, like or pertaining to a mill or miller

moleskin

heavy durable cotton

molimen

great effort, especially in performing natural functions

molimo

wooden trumpet used by Mbuti pygmies

molinary

of, like or pertaining to mills or grinding

molinology

study of mills and milling

mollipilose

downy; soft; having soft plumage

mollities

softness; softening

mollitious

luxurious; sensuous

molluscicide

killing of mollusks

mollycoddle

an effeminate man

molo

two or three-stringed lute of West Africa

molochize

to sacrifice

molossus

verse foot of three long syllables

molybdosis

lead poisoning

momentaneous

momentary; instantaneous

momilogy

study of mummies

mon

Japanese family crest

monachise

to cause to become a monk

monachism

monasticism

monadism

theory that there exist ultimate units of being

monandry

marriage to only one man at a time

monanthous

having only a single flower

monaxial

having only one axis

mondain

worldly; fashionable; such a person

monepic

comprising only one word or single-word sentences

monergism

theory that the Holy Spirit alone can act

moneyocracy

government by the monied classes

mongery

trafficking or marketing, especially in discreditable ways

moniliform

monism

belief that all things can be placed in one category

monition

caution; warning

monitory

letter containing a warning

monkery

monks in general; monasticism; behaviour of monks

monoblepsia

colour-blindness for all but one colour

monocarpic

producing fruit only once

monocerous

having only one horn

monochord

musical instrument having only one string

monochroic

of one colour

monochromasy

complete colour-blindness

monochronic

contemporaneous

monocracy

government by one inpidual

monoculture

growing of one agricultural crop only

monoculus

one-eyed person

monodrama

one-man show; play having only one actor

monody

mournful ode or poem performed by a single mourner

monoecious

having both male and female reproductive organs

monogenesis

origin of offspring from identical parent

monogoneutic

having only a single brood or litter

monogony

asexual reproduction

monoideism

obsession or fixation on a single idea or thought

monolatry

worship of one god without excluding belief in others

monoliteral

comprising only one letter

monolith

large single stone in form of monument, obelisk or column

monology

habit of offering soliloquies or monologues

monomachy

single combat; a duel

monomania

abnormal obsession with a single thought or idea

monomorphic

having only one form

monoousian

having the same substance

monophagous

feeding on only one type of food

monophobia

fear of being alone

monophylletic

derived from common ancestry or parentage

monophysitism

belief that Christ was primarily pine but in human form

monopode

one-footed person with foot large enough to be a sunshade

monopolylogue

dramatic work in which one actor plays many roles

monopsony

case of only one buyer for products of several sellers

monopsychism

belief that inpiduals have a single eternal soul

monopteron

circular temple with one ring of columns

monoptote

word with one form for all cases; indeclinable noun

monorhyme

series of lines all rhyming together

monoschemic

having the same metrical pattern throughout

monostichous

in one line; in one row

monostrophe

poem in which all stanzas share an identical structure

monostylar

consisting of a single shaft

monosy

separation of parts normally fused

monotheism

belief in only one God

monotheletism

belief that Christ had only one will

monothelious

polyandrous

monotroch

wheelbarrow

monoxylon

canoe made from one log

monstrance

vessel used to expose the Eucharist

monstricide

killing of a monster

montane

mountainous; mountain-dwelling

montant

vertical member in panelling or framing

montgolfier

balloon using fire for propulsion

monticolous

mountain-dwelling

montiform

shaped like a mountain

montre

visible pipes of an organ

monture

mounting, setting or frame

mooncalf

false conception or fleshy mass in the womb

moonraker

topmost sail of a ship, above the skyscraper

moorlog

deposit of decayed woody material under a marsh

moot

meeting; gathering; meeting-hall

mopsical

short-sighted

moquette

thick piled fabric used in upholstery and carpeting

mor

humus layer formed by slow decomposition in acidic soil

morassic

of, like or pertaining to a morass

morbidezza

an extreme delicacy and softness

morbiferous

disease-bringing

morbilliform

like or resembling measles

morcellate

to pide into small portions

mordacious

given to biting; biting in quality

mordant

biting; caustic; incisive; corrosive

mordent

rapidly alternating a tone with one half-tone lower; reverse trill

moreen

stout corded wool or cotton

morel

dark-coloured horse; blackish colour

moresco

a Moorish dance or morris-dance

morgan

unit of inferred distance between genes on a chromosome

morganatic

of, like or pertaining to a marriage between those of unequal rank

morganise

to secretly do away with

morgen

unit of land area slightly more than two acres

morgue

haughtiness; arrogance

moriform

shaped like a mulberry

morigeration

deferential behaviour

morigerous

obsequious or deferent

morion

open helmet without visor

morioplasty

restoration of lost parts of the body

morkin

animal that has died by accident

morling

sheep dead from disease; its wool

morne

dismal; gloomy; sombre

morosis

pathological feeble-mindedness

morosophy

foolish ptence of wisdom

morphallaxis

regeneration in a changed form

morphean

of, like or pertaining to dreams

morphinomania

habitual craving or desire for morphine

morphogenesis

origin or development of a body part or organ

morphography

scientific description of external form

morphology

study of forms and the development of structures

morphometry

measurement of form or shape

morphonomy

laws governing biological morphology

morphotic

of, like or pertaining to formation or development

morris

vigorous English dance performed by costumed men

morro

rounded hill or headland

morsal

of, like or pertaining to the cutting edge of a knife

morsitation

act of biting or gnawing

mortalism

belief that the soul is mortal

mortiferous

death-bringing; fatal

mortise

hole or recess made in wood to receive a tenon

mortmain

restrictive influence of the past on the psent

moschate

having a musky odour

moschiferous

producing musk

moslings

thin strips taken off when dressing skins

motable

constantly moving

motatory

continually moving

motiferous

conveying motion

motile

capable of moving spontaneously as a whole

motograph

old telegraph or telephone receiver

moton

armour for the armpit

motte

artificial mound upon which a castle is built

mottle

to variegate blotchily

moucharaby

projecting latticed window

mouillé

sounded in a liquid manner; palatized

moulin

shaft in a glacier caused by water running down a crack

moulinet

machine for bending a crossbow

mountenance

amount; distance

mournival

set of four things

mousseline

fine sheer fabric

mousseline

very fine glassware

mouton

sheepskin processed to look like the fur of another animal

movent

moving; capable of causing motion

moyenant

by means of; on condition that

mozzetta

short cape with ornamental hood worn by Catholic plates

mucedinous

mouldy; mildewy

muchity

great size or bulk

muciferous

conveying or secreting mucus

mucilage

any sticky substance

mucivorous

feeding on plant juices

mucopurulent

of mucus and pus

mucorrhoea

discharge of mucus

mucronate

terminating in a sharp point

mucrone

stiff sharp point forming an abrupt end

mucroniform

like, having or resembling a sharp point

muffineer

dish for keeping muffins hot

mugient

bellowing; braying

mugwump

one who is neutral politically

mulciberian

of, like or pertaining to metalworking

mulct

to swindle; to obtain by fraud

mulctuary

punishable by a fine

muliebrile

womanly; feminine

mulism

obstinate quirk or habit

mull

soft fine sheer cotton or silk fabric

mull

to moisten leather to make it more supple

muller

flat heavy stone or iron pulverizing tool

mullet

five-pointed star in heraldry; ridiculous hairstyle

mulligrubs

a despondent or ill-tempered mood

mullion

upright pision between window panes

mullock

waste earth or rock from a mine

mullock

nonsense; rubbish

mulm

organic sediment at bottom of an aquarium

mulse

boiled wine with honey

multanimous

having a many-sided mind

multarticulate

many-jointed

multeity

manifoldness; very great numerousness

multicapitate

many-headed

multicipital

many-headed

multifarious

having great persity; manifold

multifid

having many pisions

multiflorous

many-flowered

multilocation

appearance in many places simultaneously

multiloculate

many-chambered

multiloquence

talkativeness; use of many words

multiparous

having given birth to multiple children

multiplicative

indicating repetition or augmentation

multipotent

having the power to do many things

multiscience

knowledge of many things

multisonant

producing many or very loud sounds

multisulcate

many-furrowed

multitarian

having many forms but one central essence

multivious

leading in many directions; offering many different paths

multivocal

having many meanings

multivolent

having several differing opinions; disagreeing

multivoltine

having several broods in one season

multure

fee for grinding grain

mumbo-jumbo

obscure nonsense

mumpsimus

view stubbornly held even when shown to be wrong

mundificative

a cleansing or purifying medicine

mundify

to cleanse; to purify; to heal

mundungus

foul-smelling tobacco

mungo

shoddy cloth made from shredding old or waste woven material

munificence

magnificent liberality in giving

muniment

means of defence; record fortifying or proving a claim

munting

vertical framing piece between door panels

muntjac

small tusked East Asian deer

muonium

positively-charged muon attached to an electron

murage

tax for the upkeep of walls

murally

by means of walls; on or from a wall

murcous

having the thumb cut off

murdrum

killing of a human being in a secret manner

murenger

official in charge of ensuring city walls are repaired

muriated

pickled; pserved

muricate

rough or warty with sharp points

muricide

killing or killer of mice or rats

muriform

resembling a mouse or rat

murine

of, like or pertaining to mice and rats

muriphobia

fear of mice

murrain

epidemic or plague affecting livestock

murre

white-breasted North Atlantic seabird

murrhine

clear glassware containing pieces of coloured glass

musal

of, like or pertaining to poetry or the Muses

muscariform

shaped like a brush

muscicapine

of, like or pertaining to flycatchers and related birds

muscicide

substance for killing flies

muscid

of, like or pertaining to house-flies

muscoid

of, like or pertaining to mosses; moss-like

muscology

the study of mosses

museography

description of the contents of a museum

museology

the study of museums

musicaster

a mediocre musician

musicography

art of writing music

muslin

plain-woven fine cotton

musomania

obsession with music

musrol

nose-band of a bridle

mussitation

murmuring; grumbling

mustelid

otters, badgers and weasels

musteline

of, like or pertaining to weasels, martens and badgers

musterdevillers

archaic mixed grey woollen cloth

mutagenesis

origin or induction of mutation

mutative

indicating a change of place or state

mutchkin

old unit of liquid measurement equal to 3/4 of an imperial pint

mutic

lacking normal defensive parts or organs

mutivity

tendency to alter

mutualism

belief in mutual dependence of society and the inpidual

mvule

kind of African tree like a mulberry; hard wood of that tree

myasthenia

muscular weakness or debility

mycetism

fungus poisoning

mycology

study of funguses

mycophagous

eating fungus

mycosis

disease due to the growth of a fungus

mycteric

of, like or pertaining to the nostrils

mycterism

sneering; rhetorical sarcasm or irony

mydriasis

morbid dilatation of the pupil of the eye

myelic

of, like or pertaining to the spinal cord

myogenic

having a muscular origin

myograph

instrument for recording muscular contractions

myography

description of the muscles

myology

study of muscles

myomancy

pination from the movements of mice

myosis

excessive contraction of the pupil of the eye

myoxine

of, like or pertaining to dormice

myriacanthous

having many prickles

myriadth

being a one-ten-thousandth part of a whole

myriarchy

government by ten thousand inpiduals

myringoscope

instrument for viewing the eardrum

myriorama

picture consisting of many interchangeable parts

myristicivorous

feeding upon nutmegs

myrmecology

study of ants

myrmecophagid

of, like or pertaining to anteaters

myrmecophagous

feeding on ants

myrmecophilous

having a symbiotic relationship with ants

myrmicine

of, like or pertaining to ants

myrmidon

follower; hireling; mercenary

myropologist

one who sells perfume

mysophobia

fear of contamination or dirt

mystacial

having a mustache-like stripe

mystagogical

of, like or pertaining to religious ritual initiation

mysteriosophy

system of knowledge concerning secrets and mysteries

mythoclast

destroyer of myths

mythogenesis

origin of myths

mythography

descriptive study or repsentation of myths

mythomania

lying or exaggerating to an abnormal extent

mythopoeic

giving rise to myths

【#5】List Of Unusual Words Beginning With P

pabulous

of, like or pertaining to nourishment

pabulum

food; provender; nourishment

pacable

able to be appeased; willing to forgive

pace

contrary to the opinion of; in respectful disagreement with

pachydermia

elephantiasis

pachyglossal

thick-tongued

pachymeter

instrument for measuring small thicknesses

paciferous

peace-bringing

pacificate

to give peace to

pactolian

like or having golden-hued sands

padella

shallow dish of fat with a wick used in illuminations

padrone

innkeeper; employer

padronism

system of obtaining labour through employment agents

paean

song of thanksgiving

paedarchy

government by children

paedobaptism

doctrine of infant baptism

paedocracy

government by children; paedarchy

paedogenesis

reproduction by an infant or larval organism

paedology

study of children

paedonymic

name taken from one’s child

paedophage

eater of children

paedophilia

abnormal love or sexual attraction for children

paedophobia

fear of children; fear of dolls

paedotrophy

art of rearing children

paginal

of, like or pertaining to pages or pagination

pagophagia

eating trays of ice to help offset iron deficiency

paideutic

educational method or theory

paidonosology

study of children’s diseases; pediatrics

pais

people from whom a jury is drawn

paisley

soft wool fabric with ornamental pattern

paizogony

necking; love-play

palaceous

spade-shaped

palaeoanthropology

study of early humans

palaeobiology

study of fossil plants and animals

palaeoclimatology

study of ancient climates

palaeogaea

the Old World as a biological region

palaeogeography

study of ancient geography

palaeography

study of ancient writing or inscriptions

palaeolimnology

study of ancient fish or lakes

palaeopedology

study of early soils

palaeophile

antiquarian

palaeosophy

ancient learning or thought

palaeotypography

early typography

palaestra

wrestling school; gymnasium

palaetiology

application of principles of causation to past events

palafitte

phistoric lake dwelling

palamate

having webbed feet

palanquin

light litter for one passenger

palatine

having royal authority over a region

palative

pleasing to the taste or to the palate

palatography

recording position of tongue against hard palate during speech

palaver

to talk profusely or idly

paleaceous

chaffy; like or resembling chaff

paleobotany

study of ancient plants

paleo-osteology

study of ancient bones

paletot

loose overcoat

palette

small plate covering the armpit joint in a suit of armour

palewise

(of heraldic charges) oriented vertically

palfrey

riding horse, especially one for a lady

palification

the act of strengthening with stakes

paliform

shaped like a stake

palilalia

disorder characterized by rapid repetition of words

palillogy

repetition of a word or word or phrase

palimbacchius

metrical foot of two long and one short syllable

palimpsest

manuscript or paper that is erased and then written over

palingenesis

new birth; reincarnation; second creation

palingman

seller of fish or eels

palinode

poem in which earlier thoughts or feelings are retracted

palinola

compulsive repetition of an act until it is perfect

palinspastic

showing geological formations of an area as they existed in the past

palisade

fence of stakes used for defensive purposes

pall

covering cloth laid upon Communion chalice

palladian

of, like or pertaining to wisdom or learning

pallasethesia

sense of vibration

pallescent

turning pale

palliament

white robe or gown

palliasse

straw mattress

palliate

to ease with out curing; to extenuate

pallium

white woollen band symbolising archbishop’s authority

pallograph

instrument measuring ship’s vibration

palmar

of, like or pertaining to the palm

palmary

principal; meritorious

palpebral

of, like or pertaining to the eyelid

palter

to trifle in talk; to use trickery; to equivocate

paltock

short coat or doublet worn under armour

paltripolitan

term of scorn applied to city-dwellers or urban life

paludal

of, like or pertaining to marshes; marshy; malarial

paludicolous

growing in marshes; marsh-dwelling

paludism

marsh fever; malaria

paludose

marshy; living in marshes

palynology

study of pollen

palzogony

love-play; foreplay

pam

card game in which jack of club has highest value

pamphysicism

doctrine that material nature is the source of all things

pampiniform

like a tendril

panaceist

believer in panaceas

panaesthesia

totality of perception; general awareness

panaesthetism

theory that consciousness may inhere generally in matter

panarchy

universal rule or dominion

panary

of, like or pertaining to bread; bread store

panatella

long; thin cigar

panchion

coarse earthenware pan

pancosmism

theory that the material universe is all that exists

pancratic

excelling all round in athletics or accomplishments

pancyclopaedic

encyclopaedic

pandect

treatise covering the whole of a subject

pandemian

vulgar; sensual

pandemic

universal; affecting majority of people in a region

pandemonism

worship of spirits dwelling in all forms of nature

pandiculation

the act of stretching and yawning

pandora

musical instrument like a lute

panduriform

fiddle-shaped

panegyric

elaborate and poetic compliment; eulogy; laudation

panegyricon

collection of sermons for Orthodox church festivals

panegyry

grand assembly; religious festival

paneity

the state of being bread

panentheism

belief that world is part but not all of God’s being

pangamy

random or unrestricted mating

pangeometry

extension of geometry to more than three dimensions

Panglossian

overly optimistic

pangolin

scaly insectivorous mammal with elongated snout

pangram

sentence containing all the letters of the alphabet

panharmonicon

mechanical musical instrument operated by a cylinder

panhygrous

moist in all parts

panification

conversion into bread

panivorous

bread-eating

panjandrum

imaginary potentate of great power and self-importance

panlogism

belief that only that which is rational is truly real

panmixia

cessation of the influence of natural selection

panmnesia

belief that all mental impssions are stored in memory

pannage

food picked up by swine in woods; right to pasture swine

panne

heavy lustrous silk or rayon with waxy feel

pannicle

thin sheet-like vestment

pannier

provision-basket; basket carried over one’s back

pannikin

small metal cup

pannychis

all-night vigil in pparation for Orthodox church feast

panomphaean

all-oracular

panophobia

melancholia marked by groundless fears

panoply

complete suit of armour

panoptic

all-embracing; viewing all aspects

panopticon

prison where all inmates can be watched from one point

panpharmacon

universal remedy

panplain

flat area consisting of several joined floodplains

panpsychism

theory that all nature has a psychic side

panpygoptosis

shortness of the legs

pansexualism

theory that all thought derived from sexual instinct

pansophy

universal knowledge

panspermatism

belief in origin of life from extraterrestrial germs

pantagamy

universal bachelorhood; free love

pantagruelian

marked by extravagant and coarse satire

pantaleon

large dulcimer

pantarchy

government by all the people; world government

pantechnicon

receptacle holding many miscellaneous objects

pantheism

belief that the universe is God; belief in many gods

pantisocracy

government by all equally

pantler

officer in a household in charge of bread

pantochronometer

combined sundial and compass

pantoglot

speaker of all languages

pantograph

apparatus connecting streetcar to overhead wires

pantograph

instrument for copying drawing to a different scale

pantography

complete or general description of something

pantology

system of universal knowledge

pantomnesia

remembrance of everything ever learned

pantomorphic

taking on all shapes

pantophagy

omnivorousness

pantophobia

fear of everything

pantopragmatic

meddling in everybody’s business

pantoscope

panoramic camera

pantosophy

universal knowledge; pansophy

panurgic

good at all kinds of tasks

panzoism

belief that humans and animals share vital life energy

paparchy

government by the pope

papaverous

of, like or pertaining to poppies

papeterie

packaged fancy stationery; stationery-case

papilionaceous

of, like or pertaining to butterflies

papilla

nipple-like projection

papilliferous

bearing papillae

papilliform

nipple-shaped

papillose

having nipples or papillae

pappus

downy beginnings of a beard

papn

stone passing through a wall from face to face

papulation

the development of papillae or pimples

papuliferous

pimply; bearing or pertaining to pimples

papyraceous

like paper; papery

papyrocracy

government by newspapers or literature

papyrography

process of transferring a drawing on paper to a zinc plate

papyrology

study of paper

papyrotamia

manufacture of paper flowers

parabasis

parabiosis

physical union of two embryos or organisms

parablepsis

false vision; oversight

parabola

rhetorical use of simile or metaphor

parabolanus

layman who tends the sick

parabolaster

a parabola of a higher degree

paraboliform

shaped like a parabola

parabolist

teller of parables

paracentral

situated near the centre

parachronism

repsentation of something as being newer than it is

paraclete

paracme

decline; period following the zenith or acme

paracoita

female sexual partner

paracoitus

male sexual partner

paracrostic

poem whose initial letters reproduce its first verse

paracusis

disordered hearing

paradiastole

description of an unfavourable quality through a favourable synonym

paradigma

rhetorical comparison by resemblance to another thing

paradisiacal

suggestive of a place or state of perfect bliss

parados

earthworks defending against a rear attack

paradoxography

description of phenomena considered fantastic or wondrous

paradoxology

holding or maintaining paradoxes

paradromic

adjacent; side by side

paraenesis

paraesthesia

tingling sensation on the skin

parage

high birth or rank; equality of birth or status

paragenesis

formation of minerals as a joined mass

paragnosia

misunderstanding

paragnosis

skill in matters immune to scientific investigation

paragoge

addition of a sound to end of word

paragram

play on words in which letters are changed

paragraphia

writing of different letters and words than intended

paragraphy

writing of paragraphs

parakinesis

production of movement of objects by a spiritualist

paralalia

abnormality of speech sounds

paralipomenon

thing left out; added in supplement

paralipsis

fixing attention on subject by ptending to neglect it

parallax

seeming change of object position due to observer moving

parallelepiped

solid p with each face a parallelogram

parallelism

belief that matter and mind don’t interact but relate

paralogise

to reason falsely

paralogism

false reasoning

paramatta

worsted and cotton blend

paramedian

near the middle line

parament

rich decoration, hanging or robe

paramnesia

abnormality of memory; inability to remember meaning of word

paranatellon

a star that rises at the same time as another star

paranomasia

rhetorical art of punning

paranym

euphemism; word whose meaning altered to conceal evasion

paranymph

one who solicits for another; best man or bridesmaid

paraph

flourish under one’s signature

paraphasia

disorder in which one word substituted for another

paraphilia

any abnormal sexual attraction

paraphonia

alteration of the voice; as at puberty

paraphrast

one who paraphrases

paraphraxis

inability to perform purposive movements properly

parapraxis

blunder; error; mistake

parapsychology

study of unexplained mental phenomena

pararthria

incoherence

paraselene

mock moon; bright patch on a lunar halo

parasigmatism

inability to pronounce the sound ‘s’

parasitaster

a mean or sorry parasite

parasiticide

killing of parasites

parastatal

indirectly controlled by the state

parastatic

of, like or pertaining to protective mimicry of animals

parasuicide

harmful act appearing to be an attempt at suicide

parasynesis

corruption of forms of words

parasynthesis

derivation of words using hyphenated compounds

parataxis

organization of clauses without connectives

parathesis

apposition; compounding of words without change

paratonic

arresting growth

paravail

inferior; lowest; of least account

paravane

device used to cut underwater cables

paravant

in front; first; beforehand

parbuckle

sling made by wrapping both ends of rope around object

parciloquy

laconic speech

parclose

railing in church enclosing altar, chapel or tomb

pardie

mild oath; certainly or truly

pardine

of, like or pertaining to leopards

pardoner

one who raises money for religious works by selling indulgences

parecbasis

rhetorical digression or deviation from expected topic

paregmenon

repetition of a word or its cognates in a series of words

paregoric

soothing; lessening pain

parembole

insertion of something related to the subject into a phrase

paremptosis

insertion of something related to the subject into a phrase

parentalia

feasts or rites in memory of deceased parents

parentelic

related by blood

parenticide

killing or killer of one’s parents

parergon

work undertaken in addition to one’s employment

pareschatology

doctrine dealing with matters after death but before the end of the world

paresis

omission of an element from a word

parfay

by my faith; verily

parfleche

dried buffalo skin

parget

to plaster over; to cover with ornamental plasterwork

parhelion

halo-like light seen in sky opposite the sun

pari passu

side by side; equally

paribuntal

fine straw used to make hats

parietal

of a wall or walls, especially anatomical walls

parietals

school rules regarding inter-gender contact

parine

of, like or pertaining to titmouses

parison

lump of glass before it is moulded into its final shape

parison

even balance of elements in a sentence

parisyllabic

having the same number of syllables in all forms

parity

condition or fact of having born children

parlous

full of danger or risk

parnel

mistress or concubine of a priest; harlot

parochial

local; confined to one region

parodinia

difficult childbirth

paroemia

proverb or adage used in argumentation

paroemiographer

writer of proverbs

paroemiography

writing of proverbs; a treatise of proverbs

paroemiology

study of proverbs

paromoeon

alliteration

paromoion

starting statement with several words starting with the same letter

paromologia

partial admission of opponent’s argument to strengthen one’s final position

paromology

concession of opponent’s point to strengthen one’s own point

paronomasia

play on words; punning

paronym

word from same root or having same sound as another

parorexia

desire to eat strange foods

parotic

near or adjacent to the ear

parous

bearing or having borne offspring

parousia

second coming of Christ

parousiamania

obsession with the second coming of Christ

paroxysm

fit of passion; laughter; coughing; sudden violent action

paroxytone

having an acute accent on the next to last syllable

parquet

floor-covering of fitted wooden blocks

parrel

band by which a yard is fastened to a mast

parrhesia

parricide

killing of parent or close relative

parse

to describe a word fully in terms of classification

parsonarchy

government by parsons

parterre

pit of a theatre

parthenian

of, like or pertaining to virgins

parthenogenesis

reproduction by a virgin or by means of an unfertilized egg

parthenolatry

worship of the Virgin Mary

parthenology

study of virgins

parthophobia

fear of virgins

partible

that may be pided up or parted

particularism

belief that only a few are chosen for salvation

partitive

indicating a part of a larger whole

partocracy

government by a single unopposed political party

parturition

the act of giving birth

parure

a set of ornaments or jewels

parvanimity

smallness of mind

parvenu

one suddenly risen to wealth without great social rank

parvipotent

having little power

parvis

enclosed space at the front of a church

parviscient

having little knowledge

pascual

growing on land used for grazing; of, like or pertaining to pastures

paseo

leisurely stroll; march of bullfighters into arena

pasguard

armour for left arm and elbow to protect from lance strike while jousting

pashmina

fine goat’s wool fabric used for making shawls

pasigraphy

a system of universal ideographic writing

paso-doble

quick Spanish one-step dance

pasquinade

to lampoon; a lampoon

passacaglia

slow solemn Italian or Spanish dance

passade

motion of horse to and fro over ground in dressage

passalorynchite

one who takes a religious vow of silence

passant

heraldic animal depicted walking

passement

passepied

Breton dance resembling a quick minuet

passerine

of, like or pertaining to sparrows

passible

susceptible to or capable of suffering or of feeling

passim

everywhere; dispersedly

passimeter

instrument for issuing automatic tickets

passiuncle

minor or lesser passion

passivate

to coat metal with oxides to protect from corrosion

passulate

to dry grapes

passus

section of a poem or story

pastern

rope, strap or chain used to tie horse by its leg

pastiche

medley, composed from different sources; imitative work

pastille

small cone of charcoal burned as incense

pastose

painted thickly

pastourelle

medieval poem between knight and shepherdess

patagium

wing-membrane of flying mammal

pataphysics

the science of imaginary solutions

patation

act of drinking

patavinity

provincialism; dialectal term

patefaction

disclosure; opening; manifestation

patelliform

shaped like a saucer or kneecap

paten

plate; metal disk used to hold Communion bread

pateriform

saucer-shaped

pathic

passive; a passive subject

pathogenesis

causation or production of disease

pathognomic

indicative of a specific disease

pathography

life history used to trace a disease or disorder

pathomania

moral insanity

pathophobia

fear of disease

pathopoeia

excitation of passion by rhetoric or poetry

patible

capable of suffering or being acted on; passible

patibulary

of, like or pertaining to the gallows

patibulate

to execute by hanging

patina

film or surface that forms on surface of metal or wood

patination

formation of a film on copper from exposure

patrial

of, like or pertaining to one’s native land

patrimony

inheritance from father or ancestors

patriolatry

excessive devotion or worship of one’s native country

patroclinous

having inherited paternal characteristics

patrology

study of early Christianity

patronym

name derived from father’s name

patroon

captain of a ship; coxswain of a longboat

patruity

degree of relationship of paternal uncle

patte

narrow band keeping a belt or sash in its place

patten

wooden shoe; clog; base of a pillar

patulous

spading; wide-spading; open

pauciloquent

of few words; speaking little

pauldron

shoulder-plate of suit of armour

paulopast

just finished or past

pavage

charge for paving streets

pavane

stately English Renaissance court dance

pavé

setting of jewellery with stones close together

pavior

one who lays down paving stones

pavis

shield for the entire body

pavonated

peacock-blue

pavonian

of, like or pertaining to peacocks

pavonine

of, like or pertaining to peacocks

pax

tablet decorated with sacred p and kissed by participants in mass

paxillose

resembling a small stake

paysagist

painter of landscapes

peatary

region, bog or moor covered with peat

peau-de-soie

soft, heavy closely-woven silk

peavey

lumberman’s spiked and hooked lever

peccadillo

a slight offense or sin

peccancy

sinfulness; transgression

peccary

tropical New World piglike mammal

peccavi

admission of sin or guilt

peck

unit of dry measure equal to 8 quarts

pectinal

of a comb; comb-like

pectination

comb-like structure

pectineal

of the pubic bone

pectiniform

shaped like a comb

pectize

to congeal; to cause to set

pectoral

armour for the breast of a person or horse

pectoriloquy

sound of patient’s voice as heard through stethoscope

pecudiculture

rearing of cattle

peculation

embezzlement

peculium

private property; especially when given by father to son

pecuniary

of, like or pertaining to money; consisting of money

ped

naturally formed mass or aggregate of soil

pedagogics

study of teaching

pedagoguery

schoolmastering; teaching

pedalian

of, like or pertaining to the foot or to metrical feet

pedaneous

going on foot; pedestrian; of lowly or petty standing

pedantocracy

government by pedants or strict rule-bound scholars

pedary

of, like or pertaining to walking or feet

pedate

footed; having feet; like a foot

pederasty

anal intercourse between a man and a boy

pedetentous

proceeding slowly

pedicel

stalk of an animal organ

pedicle

bony protrusion of the skull from which an antler grows

pedicular

of, like or pertaining to lice

pediculicide

killing of lice

pediculophobia

fear of lice

pediform

shaped like a foot

pedigerous

having or bearing feet

pedimanous

having feet shaped like hands

pediment

triangular structure crowning front of a Greek building

pedipulate

to work or knead with the feet

pedography

description of soil types

pedological

of, like or pertaining to soils

pedology

study of soils

pedomancy

pination by examining the soles of the feet

pedometer

instrument for measuring distance travelled on foot

peduncle

stem or stalk of a flower

pegamoid

artificial leather

pegomancy

pination by springs or fountains

peignoir

woman’s dressing-gown

peirameter

instrument measuring resistance of road surfaces to wheel movement

peirastic

experimental; tentative

peise

weight; burden; load

pejorate

to worsen; to depciate

pejorism

severe pessimism

pelage

animal’s coat of hair or wool

pelagic

oceanic; inhabiting or carried out in the deep sea

pelargic

of, like or pertaining to storks

pelatast

ancient Greek shield-bearing soldier

pelecoid

shaped like a hatchet; a hatchet-shaped geometrical p

pelerine

woman’s fur cape

pelisse

fur-lined or fur garment

pelitic

composed of fine sediment

pellate

to pide; to separate

pellicle

thin skin or film

pellicule

thin diaphanous fabric

pellucid

completely clear; transparent

pelmatogram

footprint

pelmet

fringe or valance for hiding a curtain rod

peloid

mud or other semi-solid medium used in baths

pelotherapy

treatment by mud baths

peltastiform

shield-shaped

peltiferous

bearing a shield

peltry

skins of animals with the fur on them

pelviform

basin-shaped

pelvigraphy

examination of the pelvis

pelvimeter

instrument for measuring the pelvis

pembroke

small four-legged table with hinged flaps

pemphigus

skin condition characterized by watery boils on the body

penacute

having an acute accent on the penultimate syllable; paroxytone

penanggalan

female vampire of Malay mythology

penannular

in the form of an almost complete ring

penates

household gods of a Roman family

pencilliform

paintbrush-shaped

pendeloque

drop pendant

pendent

hanging; drooping; dangling

pendicle

pendant, dependency or appendage

pendular

of, like or pertaining to a pendulum

penduline

building a pendulous nest

pendulograph

curve repsenting combination of musical sounds

penecontemporaneous

of geological processes occurring immediately after deposition

penectomy

surgical removal of the penis

penelopize

to create work as an excuse to deter suitors

peneplain

land worn down by denudation to almost be a plain

penes

in the possession of

penetralia

inmost parts of a building or temple; innermost secrets

penetrometer

instrument for measuring firmness or consistency of substances

penial

of, like or pertaining to the penis

penicillate

having small tufts or bristles

pennaceous

featherlike

pennate

winged; feathered

penniferous

bearing feathers

penniform

feather-shaped

pennyweight

unit of troy weight equal to 24 grains

penology

study of crime and punishment

pensile

hanging; suspended; overhanging

pensum

task; school imposition

pentad

set of five things

pentagamist

person who has or has had five spouses

pentalogy

state of being in five parts

pentamerous

having five parts or members

pentapolis

alliance of five cities

pentarchy

government by five inpiduals

pentateuch

the first five books of the Old Testament

pentheraphobia

fear or hatred of one’s mother-in-law

pentimento

revealing of part of a painting beneath a newer one

penury

destitution; poverty

peotillomania

abnormal compulsion for pulling on the penis

peotomy

surgical removal of the penis

per

through; according to; by means or agency of

peracute

very sharp or violent; very acute

peragrate

to travel over or through

percale

closely woven lightweight cloth

percaline

glossy lightweight cotton

perceptionalism

belief that humans perceive things as they truly are

percheron

dappled cart horse

percipient

perceiving; observant; perceptive

percoct

well-cooked; overdone

percurrent

running through the whole length

percutaneous

done or applied through the skin

percutient

striking or having the power to strike; percussive

perdicine

of, like or pertaining to partridges

perdricide

killer of partridges

perdure

to endure over a period of time

peregrination

journey, especially on foot or to a foreign country

peregrinity

foreignness; outlandishness

perennate

to live perennially; to survive from season to season

perequitate

to ride through on horseback

perfectibilian

believer in the perfectibility of mankind

perfectibilism

doctrine that humans capable of becoming perfect

perfectionism

doctrine that moral perfection constitutes the highest value

perfervid

very fervid; ardent; eager

perficient

effectual; actually achieving a result

perfuse

to pour or diffuse through or over

pergameneous

like or resembling parchment

pergola

arched framework for climbing plants

periaster

point in orbit of a body in which it is nearest to a specified star

peribolos

pcinct; enclosing wall of a pcinct

pericentral

surrounding a centre or central body

periclinal

sloping downwards in all directions from a point

periclitate

to endanger; to jeopardise

pericope

an excerpt or passage read during religious services

periegesis

description in the manner of a tour; journey through

periergia

use of elevated style to discuss a trivial matter

periodontics

study of gums

perioeci

inpiduals living at same latitude on opposite sides of earth

periotic

around the ear

peripatetic

wandering about; itinerant

peripetia

sudden change of fortune

periphrasis

circumlocution; round-about expssion

periplus

a voyage or trip around something

peripteral

having a row of columns on every side

periscian

person living inside the polar circle

perispomenon

having a circumflex accent on the final syllable

perissology

verbiage; pleonasm

perissosyllabic

having an additional syllable

perissotomist

knife-happy surgeon

peristalith

ancient stone circle

peristeronic

of, like or pertaining to pigeons

peristerophily

pigeon-collecting

peristrephic

moving round; revolving; rotatory

peristyle

range of columns around a building or courtyard

peritectic

in the state between solid and liquid; melting

periwinkle

a bluish or azure colour; a plant with bluish flowers

perlative

indicating movement through or across

perliginous

producing pearls

perlocution

effect produced when a particular word is uttered

perlustrate

to traverse and inspect carefully

permeameter

instrument for measuring permeability

pernicious

destructive; ruinous; fatal

pernoctate

to pass the night in vigil or prayer

pernor

one who takes or receives

peroral

through the mouth

perorate

to speak grandiosely or grandiloquently

peroration

lengthy part of speech; especially a conclusion

perpend

to weigh in the mind; to consider carefully

perpilocutionist

one who speaks through his hat

perron

raised platform or terrace at an entrance door

perscrutation

thorough search

perse

dark blue or bluish-grey; cloth of such a colour

perseity

independent existence

perseverate

to repeat an action continually or habitually

persiennes

outside shutters with movable slats

persiflage

banter; flippancy; idle chatter

personalia

personal details, possessions or stories

personalism

doctrine that humans possess spiritual freedom

personalty

personal belongings and property

perspectography

theory of drawing according to rules of perspective

perspicacious

clear-minded; astute; perceptive

perspicuous

easily understood; clearly expssed

perstringe

to constrain; to touch on; to censure

pertinacity

quality of holding unyieldingly to a position

pertuse

punched; pierced; slit

pertussis

whooping cough

perulate

scaly; having scaled skin

pervicacious

very obstinate

pervigilium

night vigil

pervious

permeable; penetrable

pessary

suppository inserted into the vagina

pessimal

least favourable

pessimum

point at which any condition is least favourable

pessomancy

pination using pebbles

pestiferous

bringing plague or pestilence

pestology

science of pests

petaliferous

bearing petals

petaurist

flying phalanger

petcock

valve for draining condensed steam from engine cylinders

petrary

contrivance for hurling stones

petrean

of, like or pertaining to or made of rock

petrel

long-winged seabird with hooked bill

petrichor

pleasant smell accompanying the first rain after a dry spell

petricolous

living in or near rocks

petrissage

massage by longitudinal rubbing and lateral squeezing

petrogenesis

formation or development of rocks

petroleous

containing or rich in petroleum

petroliferous

bearing petroleum

petrology

study of rocks

petrophilous

living on or thriving in rocky areas

pettifogger

a lawyer given to underhanded tactics

pettitoes

pigs’ feet as food

petulcous

butting like a ram

petuncle

small scallop

pewfellow

one who occupies the same pew as another

pexity

roughness of the nap of cloth

peytral

armour for a horse’s breast

phacochoerine

of, like or pertaining to warthogs

phacometer

instrument for measuring lenses

phaeton

open four-wheeled carriage

phagomania

excessive desire for food or eating

phagophobia

fear of eating

phakic

(of an eye) having a crystalline lens

phalanstery

dwelling of a communal group or phalanx of inpiduals

phalarope

migratory shorebird with lobed feet

phallephoric

carrying the penis

phallic

of, pertaining to or resembling a penis

phallocracy

government by men

phallocrat

one who assumes the naturality of male dominance

phaneromania

habit of biting one’s nails

phanerosis

act or process of becoming visible

phanic

visible; obvious

phanopoeia

visual imagery in poetry

phantasmatography

scientific description of rainbows and other lumnious atmospheric phenomena

phaometer

old instrument for measuring light intensity

pharisaic

hypocritical

pharmacognosy

study of drugs of animal and plant origin

pharmacology

study of drugs

pharmacomania

abnormal obsession with trying drugs

pharmacometer

instrument for measuring drugs

pharmacopolist

drug-seller; pharmacist; apothecary

pharology

study of lighthouses

pharos

lighthouse or beacon

pharyngography

description of the pharynx

pharyngology

study of the throat

pharyngoscope

instrument for inspecting the pharynx

phassachate

lead-coloured agate

phatic

using speech for social reasons or to communicate feelings

phelloplastic

a model in cork

phememe

smallest possible linguistic unit

phemic

of, like or pertaining to speech

phenakistoscope

early cinematograph in which ps are viewed through a slit

phenetic

of, like or pertaining to classification by phenotype

phengite

bright and beautiful kind of alabaster

phengophobia

fear of daylight

phenogenesis

origin of racial groups

phenology

study of organisms as affected by climate

phenomenalism

belief that phenomena are the only realities

phenomenology

study of phenomena

pheon

the barbed head of a dart or arrow in heraldry

pheretrer

keeper of a shrine

phialiform

saucer-shaped

phialine

resembling a phial

philalethist

lover of truth

philately

study of postage stamps

philematology

the act or study of kissing

philematophobe

one who dislikes kissing

philhippic

loving or admiring horses

philippic

speech or writing full of bitter condemnation

philistine

materialistic in outlook; uncultured

phillumeny

collecting of matchbox labels

philocaly

love of beauty

philodemic

fond of commoners or the lower classes

philodox

one who loves his own opinions; dogmatic person

philogyny

love of women

philologaster

petty or contemptible philologist

philology

study of ancient texts; historical linguistics

philomath

lover of learning

philomelian

of, like or pertaining to nightingales

philonoist

one who seeks knowledge

philopornist

lover of prostitutes

philoprogenitive

of, like or pertaining to instinctive love for offspring

philosophaster

amateur or superficial philosopher

philosophicide

one who kills or wishes to kill philosophers or philosophy

philosophocracy

government by philosophers

philosophuncule

petty or minor philosopher

philotechnical

devoted to the arts

philotherianism

love of animals

philoxenia

hospitality

philter

love-potion or charm; a drug to produce some magical effect

phimosis

inability to retract the ppuce of the penis

phlebography

description or examination of a vein

phlebology

study of the veins and their diseases

phlebotomy

blood-letting

phlegmatic

of a calm; unexcitable disposition

phlogiston

nonexistent principle of flammability inherent in matter

phlogogenetic

causing inflamation

phocine

of, like or pertaining to seals

phocomelia

having limbs like a seal’s flippers

phoeniceous

bright scarlet-red colour

phoenicopter

flamingo

pholidosis

arrangement of scales, as in fish and reptiles

phon

unit of loudness of sound as heard by listeners

phonascus

person who maintains rhythm in church choir

phonasthenia

weakness of voice

phonation

production of vocal sound

phonautograph

instrument for recording sound vibrations

phonendoscope

device which amplifies small sounds

phonesis

production of speech sounds

phoniatrics

study and correction of speech defects

phonography

recording of sound by means of a phonograph

phonomania

pathological tendency to murder

phonometer

instrument for measuring sound levels

phonophobia

fear of noise or of speaking aloud

phonophorous

transmitting sound waves

phonus-bolonus

exaggerated trickery or nonsense

phorminx

seven-stringed Greek lyre

phorometer

instrument used to correct abnormalities in eye muscles

phoropter

device with several lenses used to test eyesight

phosphene

light seen when the eyeball is pssed

phossy

caused by phosphorus

photaesthesia

sense of vision

photic

light-giving; sensitive to light; penetrated by light

photism

illusory vision of light

photobiology

study of effects of light on organisms

photodromy

motion towards light

photoglyph

photographic engraving

photogyric

turning towards light

photolysis

disintegration resulting from exposure to radiation

photomania

pathological desire for light

photometer

instrument for measuring light intensity

photon

unit of brightness of light as received at the retina

photophile

organism loving or thriving in light

photophilous

pferring or thriving in lighted conditions

photophobia

fear of light

photophygous

avoiding or disliking light

photopia

vision in bright light

photopolarimeter

instrument for measuring intensity and polarization of reflected light

photopsia

appearance of light flashes due to retinal irritation

photosphere

region of space lit by the sun

phototachometer

instrument for measuring the speed of light

phototaxis

growth or movement determined by light

phototelegraph

instrument for transmitting drawings telegraphically

phototonus

sensitivity to light

phraseography

repsentation of whole phrases with inpidual signs or symbols

phraseology

study of phrases

phreatic

of, like or pertaining to underground water supplying or wells

phrenesis

delirium; frenzy

phrenic

of or near the midriff

phrenography

observation and description of mental phenomena

phrenology

study of bumps on the head

phrontistery

a thinking-place; place for study

phthartic

deadly; destructive

phthirophagous

lice-eating

phthisiotherapeutics

medical treatment of tuberculosis

phthongal

of, pertaining to, or consisting of a sound; vocalized

phthongometer

instrument measuring intensity of vowel sounds

phugoid

of, like or pertaining to the longitudinal stability of aircraft

phycology

study of algae and seaweeds

phygogalactic

halting milk production

phylactic

defending against disease

phylarchy

government by a specific class or tribe

phyle

pision of the people of a state into local clans

phylliform

shaped like a leaf

phyllomancy

pination using leaves or tea leaves

phyllomania

excessive or abnormal production of leaves

phyllophagous

leaf-eating

phyllophorous

leafy; bearing or having leaves

phylogenesis

origin and history of a species’ evolution

physagogue

substance causing flatulence

physicalism

belief that all phenomena reducible to verifiable assertions

physiocracy

government according to natural laws or principles

physiognomancy

pination by studying the face

physiognomy

general appearance of anything, especially the face

physiography

description of landforms or natural features of the environment

physiolatry

nature-worship

physiologus

work containing descriptions of animals; a bestiary

physiophilosophy

system of knowledge concerning principles of natural history

physiosophy

assumption of knowledge of nature

physitheism

attribution of physical form and attributes to deities

physiurgic

due to natural causes

phytivorous

feeding on plants

phytogenesis

origin and development of plants

phytogenic

derived from plants

phytography

description or treatise on plants

phytology

study of plants; botany

phytomania

obsession with collecting plants

phytopathology

study of diseases of plants

phytophilous

fond of plants

phytosophy

knowledge of plants

piacular

expiatory; atrociously bad

pianette

small upright piano

pibcorn

old Welsh instrument like a hornpipe

pibroch

piece of music for bagpipe

pica

craving to eat dust

picamar

bitter oily liquid obtained from tar

picaresque

of, like or pertaining or pertaining to rogues or roguish behaviour

picaroon

person who lives by his or her wits; rogue or scoundrel

picayune

five-cent-piece or other coin of little value

piceous

like pitch; inflammable; reddish black

pichi

small dark Argentinian armadillo

pichiciego

small South American armadillo

piciform

of the form or shape of a woodpecker

piciform

of the nature of or resembling pitch

picine

of, like or pertaining to woodpeckers

pickelhaube

spiked helmet

pickery

petty theft under Scottish law

picksome

particular; picky

pickthank

sycophant; flatterer

picot

loop in an ornamental edging; raised knot in embroidery

pictography

repsentation of ideas by means of pictures

piebald

of an animal, consisting of two or more colours

pied

variegated; of various colours

piedroit

square pillar attached to wall, lacking both base and capital

pierage

fee paid for use of a pier

pieta

repsentation of Virgin Mary with dead Christ across her knees

pietism

unquestioning or dogmatic religious devotion

piezometer

instrument for measuring pssure or compssibility

piggin

small pail or bowl made of staves and hoops

pigmentocracy

government by those of one skin colour

pignorate

to give or take in pledge or pawn

pigwash

rubbish; nonsense

pika

rabbit-like mountain-dwelling mammal with rounded ears

pilaster

square column partially embedded in a wall

pilch

fur or wool outergarment; rug laid over saddle

pilcrow

paragraph-mark

pile

upside-down wedge at an acute angle on a coat of arms

pileated

cap-shaped; crested; capped

pileiform

shaped like an umbrella

pileum

top of a bird’s head

pileus

umbrella-shaped portion of a mushroom

poor wretch; self-pitying person

piliferous

bearing or growing hair

piliform

shaped like hair

pillion

light pillow or saddle for a woman rider

pilliwinks

torture instrument for crushing fingers

pillory

wooden frame with holes for head and hands used as punishment

pilose

having scattered soft or moderately stiff hairs

piment

spiced sweetened wine

pinacotheca

picture-gallery

pinafore

loose protective garment worn over a dress

pinchbeck

cheap copper and zinc alloy; spurious or trashy

pinder

one who impounds cattle

pineal

shaped like a pine-cone

pinetum

collection or plantation of pine trees

pingo

cone-shaped mound with ice core

pinguefy

to become or make fat or greasy; to make rich

pinion

small wheel with teeth

pinion

wing; last joint of a wing; outermost flight feather

pinnace

small vessel with oars and sails

pinnate

shaped like a feather

pinniped

seals, walruses, and other such sea mammals

pintle

bolt or pin on which something turns, as a hinge

pipe

pipistrelle

small reddish-brown bat

piqué

stiff durable corded fabric of cotton, rayon or silk

piscary

the right of fishing; a fishing pond

piscatology

study of fishes

piscatorial

of, like or pertaining to fishing or fishers

piscicapturist

fisherman

piscicide

substance that kills fish

piscifauna

fish life of an area

pisciform

shaped like a fish

piscina

basin set in wall of church to drain away ceremonial water

piscine

of, like or pertaining to fish

piscivorous

fish-eating

pisiform

shaped like a pea

pismire

an ant; something or someone insignificant

pismirism

hoarding of small or insignificant things

pisteology

science or study of faith

pistiology

doctrine concerning faith

pistolography

instantaneous photography

pistology

branch of theology concerned with faith

pitchometer

instrument for measuring angles of ship’s propeller blades

piteous

arousing or deserving pity

pixilated

bemused; bewildered; intoxicated

pizzle

bull’s penis used as instrument of punishment by flogging

placage

covering of walls with thin marble slabs or with plaster

placard

thick metal reinforced plate of armour for back or breast

placee

investor who is sold shares by private placement

placentiform

cake-shaped

placentigerous

bearing a placenta

placentography

examination or imagery of the placenta

placentophagy

eating of the placenta

placet

vote of assent in a governing body

placitum

decision of a court or an assembly

placket

opening in a skirt or shirt for a pocket

placoid

plate-like; having plate-like scales

plafond

decorated ceiling

plagate

marked with a streak or streaks

plage

fashionable beach

plagiary

one who plagiarises

plagium

the crime of kidnapping

plainstones

flagstone side-pavement of a street

planation

making level

planchet

blank metal disc to be stamped as a coin

planchette

board or similar tool used in interpting spirit messages

planetesimal

of, like or pertaining to asteroids or similar tiny celestial bodies

planetic

erring; erratic

planetogeny

theory of the origin of planets

planetography

description or treatise on the planets

planetolatry

worship of the planets

planetology

study of planets

plangency

resonance; noisiness

plangent

deep or loud sounding

planigraph

instrument for copying drawings at a different scale

planigraphy

drawing of ground plans

planiloquent

speaking plainly

planimeter

instrument for measuring area of plane ps

planipennate

having flat; broad wings

planish

to polish; to flatten

planisphere

sphere projected onto a plane; map of the heavens

planity

the quality of being plane

plankwise

in the manner or direction of a plank

planography

cartography

planomania

abnormal desire to wander and disobey social norms

planster

petty or poor planner

plantar

of, like or pertaining to the sole of the foot

plantigrade

walking fully on the soles of the feet

plantivorous

plant-eating

plantocracy

government by plantation owners

plapper

to make sounds with the lips

plashy

full of pools or puddles; marshy or boggy

plasmophagous

consuming plasma

plastography

art of forging handwriting

plastron

fencer’s padded breast-shield; steel breastplate worn under hauberk

plataleiform

spoonbilled; of the shape of a spoonbill

platband

flat molding that exceeds its projection; fillet between column’s flutings

plateasm

broad speech; talking with the mouth open too wide

platilla

fine white linen

platiniferous

bearing platinum

platitude

commonplace or trite remark made as if it were important

platitudinarian

one who utters platitudes

platometer

instrument for measuring area; planimeter

platten

to flatten into a plate or sheet

platypodia

flat-footedness

platypussary

building or pen where platypuses are kept

platysma

broad sheet of muscle in the neck

plauditory

issuing enthusiastic approval or applause

plaustral

of, like or pertaining to a wagon

playa

basin which becomes a shallow lake after heavy rainfall

pleach

to intertwine the branches of

pleasance

pleasure; enjoyment; complaisance

plebania

mother-church having authority over several local churches

plebeian

of the common people or vulgar classes

plebification

making something vulgar or plebeian

plebiscitarism

principle or practice of using plebiscites

plectile

woven or plaited

plectrum

pick for stringed instruments

pledget

wad of cotton or lint used to dress a wound

plegometer

instrument for measuring the strength of a blow

pleiomery

condition of having more than the normal number

pleiomorphy

occurrence of several distinct stages in the life cycle of an organism

plemyrameter

instrument for measuring variations in water level

plenary

full; entire; complete; absolute; unqualified

plenicorn

having solid horns (as a deer)

pleniloquence

excessive talking; fullness of speech

plenilunar

of, like or pertaining to the full moon

plenipotence

absolute power

plenitude

fullness; completeness; abundance; sufficiency

plenum

space completely filled with matter

pleochroic

displaying different colours when seen from different directions

pleonasm

redundancy; use of more words than necessary

pleonectic

greedy; covetous

pleonexia

greed; avarice

pleroma

fullness; abundance

plerophory

full conviction

plethysmograph

instrument for measuring change in body part size due to blood flow

plethysmography

measurement of variation in blood pssure

pleurotropous

laterally flattened

plexiform

shaped like a network

plexure

network; web; interweaving

plicated

folded fanwise; pleated

plication

the act of folding

plimsoll

rubber-soled canvas shoe

plinth

rectangular base of column or pedestal

pliofilm

thin waterproof transparent sheet used for packaging

pliothermic

of, like or pertaining to periods of above-average temperatures

plissé

fabric with puckered finish

ploce

repetition of word in more expssive sense for emphasis

plodge

to trudge through anything in which the feet sink

plosion

release of breath after consonant

plousiocracy

government by the wealthy; plutocracy

plumassier

worker in feathers; feather-seller

plumbeous

leaden; lead-coloured

plumbiferous

bearing or yielding lead

plumbism

lead poisoning

plumbless

incapable of being sounded

plumeopicean

of tar and feathers

plumiped

having feathered feet

pluralism

belief that reality consists of several kinds or entities

plurennial

lasting or surviving many years

pluriarc

West African stringed instrument like a zither

pluriliteral

of more than three letters

plurinominal

having more than one name

pluriparous

giving birth to multiple young in a single birth

pluripsence

psence in multiple places at one time

pluriserial

in several rows

plutarchy

government by the wealthy; plutocracy

plutocracy

government by the wealthy

plutography

description of the lives of the wealthy

plutolatry

worship of wealth

plutology

political economy; study of wealth

plutomania

mania for money

pluton

mass of rock solidified under earth’s surface

plutonic

of volcanic or deep origin

pluvial

floor-length open-fronted ecclesiastical garment

pluviograph

self-registering rain gauge

pluviometer

rain-meter

pneometer

instrument that measures respiration

pneumatics

study of mechanics of gases

pneumatographer

one who receives and writes spirit messages

pneumatography

description or treatise about spiritual beings

pneumatolith

stone in the lung

pneumatology

science of spiritual phenomena or beings

pneumatomachy

denial of the pinity of the Holy Ghost

pneumatometer

instrument for measuring quantity of air breathed

pneumatomorphic

like a spirit

pneumatophany

appearance of a spirit; especially the Holy Ghost

pneumatophilosophy

philosophy of spirits or the spirit world

pneumatophony

sound caused by a ghost or spirit

pneumatosis

psence of gas in the body

pneumograph

instrument for measuring and recording respiration

pneumography

description of the lungs

pnyx

ancient Athenian place of assembly

poaceous

of, like or pertaining or pertaining to grass

pochette

pocket notecase or wallet

pochoir

manual colour stencilling onto a printed illustration

pococurante

uninterested; indifferent; nonchalant; apathetic

poculation

drinking of alcoholic beverages

poculent

fit for drinking

podalic

of, like or pertaining to feet

podiatry

study and treatment of disorders of the foot; chiropody

podiform

shaped like a pod

podobromhydrosis

smelly feet

podocarp

stalk that bears the fruit of a plant

podology

study of the feet

podoscaph

pedalled boat; canoe-shaped float attached to feet for walking on water

podzol

acidic soil with ash-like subsurface layer

poecilomere

part of an animal’s body where colour variations first appear

poecilonym

synonym; one of a variety of names for a thing

poephagous

eating grass or herbs; herbivorous

poetaster

petty poet; writer of contemptible verses

poetolatry

worship of poets

poetomachia

contest or quarrel among poets

pogamoggan

wooden club with iron or stone piece on end, used by Indians

pogoniasis

excessive growth of beard

pogonip

dense fog of suspended ice particles

pogonology

book or treatise on beards

pogonophile

one who loves beards

pogonophobia

fear of beards

pogonotrophy

growing of a beard

pogrom

organized massacre

poikilothermic

cold-blooded

pointel

sharp instrument

pointillism

use of separate dots of pure colour rather than blends

poise

unit of viscosity of liquids

poitrel

armour for a horse’s breast

pokerish

causing terror; uncanny

polacca

stately Polish dance; polonaise

polarchy

government by many people; polyarchy

polarimeter

instrument for measuring polarised light

polariscope

instrument for detecting polarized light

polder

piece of low-lying reclaimed land

poldermitton

curved reinforced armour for the right arm

pole

unit of area equal to a square rod

polemarch

ancient Greek military and civil officer

polemic

controversial discussion or attack

polemology

study of war

polemomania

mania for war

polemoscope

telescope with angled mirrors for seeing over walls or around corners

poleyn

piece of armour for the knee

policeocracy

government by police

policlinic

outpatient department of hospital

poliorcectic

of, like or pertaining to siegecraft or besiegement

poliosis

pmature graying of the hair

politicaster

petty politician

politicide

killing of people because of their political beliefs

politicomania

mania for politics

polkamania

craze for polka dancing

pollarchy

government by the multitude or a mob; ochlocracy

pollard

tree having the whole crown cut off

pollicitation

promise; especially one not yet accepted

polliniferous

bearing pollen

pollinigerous

pollen-bearing

pollyanna

one who is naively optimistic

polonaise

stately Polish dance of moderate tempo

poltophagy

prolonged chewing of food

poltroon

craven; cowardly

polverine

glass-makers’ potash

polyacoustic

amplifying sounds

polyarchy

government by many people

polychotomy

pision into many parts

polychrest

thing or medicine useful in many ways

polycracy

government by many rulers; polyarchy

polydemic

native to several countries

polydipsia

abnormal thirst

polyergic

having many functions

polyethnic

consisting of or derived from many races or ethnicities

polygenesis

theory that humans derived from many separate origins

polygenous

of multiple origin or composition

polygoneutic

having several broods in each season

polygraphy

copious or productive writing

polyhidrosis

excessive perspiration

polyhistor

person of exceptionally broad knowledge

polylemma

argument forcing choice between contradictory statements

polylith

phistoric monument consisting of many stones

polyloquent

speaking much; loquacious

polymania

mania affecting several different mental faculties

polymath

person possessing knowledge of many subjects

polymicrian

compssed into a very small space

polymythy

use of multiple plots in a single story

polynesic

in multiple separate locations

polynia

open water amid sea ice

polyommatous

having many eyes

polyonym

name consisting of several words

polyopia

multiple vision

polyphagous

eating many types of food

polypharmacy

treatment with many medicines

polyphiloprogenitive

very fertile; very imaginative

polyphloisbic

loud-roaring

polyphloisboisterous

noisy

polyphone

many-stringed instrument like a lute

polyphyletic

descending from more than one original type

polypnea

rapid breathing

polypod

many-legged animal

polypragmatist

busybody

polypsychic

having several souls

polypsychism

belief that one person may have multiple souls

polyptoton

repetition of word in same sentence with multiple inflectional endings

polysemant

word with many meanings

polystachious

having many spikes

polystichous

arranged in many rows

polystomatous

having many mouths

polystyle

building having many columns

polysyllabilingual

relating to polysyllabic languages

polysyllogism

series of syllogisms where each is basis for next

polysyndeton

rhetorical device of repeating conjunction for emphasis

polythalamous

having many chambers

polytheism

belief in multiple deities

polytocous

producing many or several at a birth

pomace

crushed apples for cider-making

pomaceous

of, like or pertaining to or consisting of apples

pomade

ointment for the hair

pomander

ball of perfumes

pomiculture

growing of fruit

pomiferous

bearing apples

pomiform

shaped like an apple

pomoerium

open space around a town within the walls

pomology

study of fruit-growing

ponderation

weighing or weighing up

pone

card player on dealer’s right responsible for cutting cards

ponerology

theological doctrine of wickedness or evil

pongee

thin soft fabric woven from raw silk

pontage

toll paid on bridges; tax for repairing bridges

pontifice

bridge-work; a bridge

pontist

bridge builder

poodle

coarsely looped or nubby fabric

poop

enclosed structure at stern of ship above main deck

popinjay

conceited person

popjoy

to amuse oneself

poplin

corded woven silk and worsted

popliteal

of, like or pertaining to the back of the knee

popocracy

government by populists

popple

to flow tumblingly; to heave choppily

poppycock

humbug; nonsense

poppyhead

raised ornament on top of upright end of seats in churches

populicide

killing of the population of an area or nation

poral

of, like or pertaining to pores

porbeagle

shark with a pointed snout

porcellanous

resembling porcelain

porcine

of, like or pertaining to pigs; swinish

porculation

fattening or feeding of swine

porge

to make meat kosher by removing veins and sinews from hindquarters

poriferous

having pores

poriform

having the form of a pore

poriomania

abnormal compulsion to wander

porism

geometrical expssion of possibility of multiple solutions

porlocking

irksome intrusion or interruption

pornbroker

one who deals in pornography

pornerastic

lecherous; bawdy; lewd

pornocracy

government by harlots

pornogenarian

dirty old man

pornolagnia

desire for prostitutes

pornomania

obsession with pornography

pornotopia

perfect setting for the antics of pornography

porogamy

fertilization of seed plants

poromeric

permeable to water vapour

porometer

instrument for measuring degree of porosity

poroplastic

both porous and plastic

poroscope

instrument for investigating porosity

porosis

knitting together of broken bones

porphyrogenitic

of royal birth

porphyrogeniture

accession of 1st son born after father’s accession

porphyry

beautiful and valuable purplish stone

porrect

to stretch forth; to psent

porriginous

suffering from a scalp disease that causes baldness

porringer

small dish for soup or porridge

portesse

portable breviary

portfire

ppared paper cylinder used to fire rockets and fireworks

portière

curtain hung over door of a room

portiuncle

small piece of something, especially of land

portmanteau

word formed by blending two existing words

posaune

archaic trombone

posigrade

auxiliary rocket on a spacecraft

positivism

doctrine that that which is not observable is not knowable

posnet

small cooking pot with feet and handle

posology

science of quantity or dosage

possessive

indicating possession; genitive case

posset

milk curdled with alcohol used as remedy

postament

frame; pedestal

postcenal

after dinner

postconnubial

after marriage

postdiluvian

after the great Flood

postern

back door or gate; small private door

postexilic

after exile

postface

concluding note added to end of written work

postiche

excessively and inappropriately added to a finished work

posticous

posterior; outward; extrorse

postil

postilion

someone who guides posthorses

postjacent

posterior; behind

postliminary

subsequent

postliminy

right of returned exiles to resume former status

postlude

closing piece of music at end of church service

postmundane

after the end of the world

postprandial

after dinner

postscenium

part of stage behind the scenery

poststructuralism

belief that there is no objective meaning to a text

postulant

candidate for a religious order

postulator

official who psents case for canonization or beatification

potable

fit to drink; drinkable

potager

garden laid out in a decorative way

potamic

of, like or pertaining to rivers

potamography

study of geography of rivers; a description of rivers

potamology

study of rivers

potation

the activity of drinking

potatory

related to excessive drinking

potentiate

to use drugs in combination to increase their power

potentiometer

instrument for measuring electromotive forces

pother

choking smoke or dust; fuss; commotion

potichomania

craze for imitating Oriental porcelain

potomania

abnormal desire to drink alcohol

potometer

instrument measuring rate at which plants absorb water

potshop

small public house

potter

to busy oneself with trifling tasks

pottle

small conical fruit basket

pottle

unit of liquid measurement of two quarts, or one-half gallon

potto

small nocturnal West African monkey

poudrin

small ice crystals

poulard

fattened or spayed hen

pounce

fine powder spad on writing paper to keep ink from running

poundage

charge for keeping stray cattle

poundal

unit of force that accelerates 1 pound to 1 foot / second / second

pourboire

tip; gratuity

pourparler

discussion prior to negotiation

pourpointerie

quilted armour with studs

poussin

chicken raised for eating at around six weeks old

powellisation

means of pserving timber

practive

practical; concerned with practice

praedial

of, like or pertaining to or connected with the land or farming

praepostor

pfect of a school

pragmatica

royal edict that has the force of law

pragmatism

doctrine emphasizing practical value of philosophy

prairillon

small prairie

pralltriller

rapid musical trill

prandial

of, like or pertaining to dinner

prasinous

leek-green colour

pratal

growing in meadows

prate

to talk foolishly or sententiously; to tattle

pratincole

fork-tailed, long-winged Australian bird

pratincolous

inhabiting meadows or fields

pravity

wickedness; depravity

praxeology

study of practical or efficient activity; science of efficient action

praxinoscope

early cinematograph using series of moving drawings

praxis

customary practice or conduct

pagonal

immediately pceding death throes

pallable

pvious; pliminary; pceding

paudience

right to be heard before another

pbend

stipend or salary paid to clergyman

pbendal

of, like or pertaining to stipends issued by a church

pcantation

prophecy; foretelling

pcative

supplicating; expssing entreaty

pcatory

of the nature of or expssing a wish or recommendation

pcentor

leader of the singing of a church choir

pceptive

concerning rules of conduct, laws or pcepts

pciation

evaluation of the value or price of a thing

précieuse

woman affecting a fastidious over-refinement

pcipitinogenic

causing pcipitation

pcisian

overly pcise person; formalist

pcissive

separating; defining; exact

pcognosce

to take a pcognition of

pconcert

to settle beforehand

pconize

to proclaim; to summon publicly

pdacean

pdatory animal

pdacious

living by py; pdatory

pdella

platform for altar; portable altar or decoration upon it

pdestinarianism

belief that what ever is to happen is already fixed

pdevote

foreordained

pdicant

paching; pdicating

pdicative

indicating the pdicate

pfatorial

serving as pface or opening remarks

pp

to imagine beforehand; to foreshadow

pfulgent

extremely bright

pgustation

foretaste

phensor

something that grasps or seizes

placy

episcopal church government

plapsarian

belonging to the time before man’s original sin

plate

bishop or abbot of superior rank

plation

pferment; promotion; eminence

plibation

foretaste; offering of first fruits

pliography

description or treatise about a battle

plusive

of the nature of a plude; introductory

pmiate

to give a prize or pmium for

pmonish

to warn beforehand

pmorse

ending abruptly as if bitten off

pmotion

pine impulse determining the will

pmove

to incite or prompt to action

pmundane

period before the creation of the earth

pnarial

of, like or pertaining to or in front of the nostrils

pnticecide

killer of an appntice

ppense

pmeditated; intentional

ppollence

pdominance

ppone

to reschedule for an earlier time

ppossess

to bias or pjudice favourably; to impss

ppotent

potent in a very high degree

pputial

of, like or pertaining to the foreskin

prupt

broken off; steep; abrupt

psbycousis

hardness of hearing during old age

psbyophrenia

female senility marked by loss of memory

psbytery

part of church reserved for officiating clergy

pscind

to cut off; cut short; separate

pscriptivism

belief that moral edicts are merely orders with no truth value

pseminal

before the onset of puberty; before fertility

psenium

period of life pceding old age

psentationism

theory that the mind has direct access to perceived objects

psentient

pscient; having a pmonition

psentoir

ornamental shallow tray or cup

psidial

of, like or pertaining to a garrison

psidial

psidential

pssible

able to be pssed

pstigiator

conjurer

pstriction

blindness; blindfolding

pterist

lover of the past

pterite

signifying past time or a completed action

pterition

passing over or omission; drawing attention to a thing by claiming to omit it

ptermit

to pass by; to omit; to leave undone

pterpluparenthetical

tending to use excessive parenthesis; pedantic

pvenancy

courteous anticipation of others’ wishes

pvenient

antecedent; pceding; anticipatory

pvernal

blossoming or foliating early

pvision

foresight; foreknowledge

pvoyant

having foresight

Priapean

of, like or pertaining to male reproductive power; phallic

priapism

constant erection; licentiousness; lewdness

pricket

spike or antler used as a candlestick

pridian

of, like or pertaining to yesterday

prie-dieu

prayer stool or kneeling bench in a church

prill

nodule of metal obtained after assaying

primage

fee paid to loaders for loading ship

primatology

study of primates

prime

prayer service held at 6 a.m.

primigenial

first or earliest formed or produced

primiparous

having borne only one child

primitiae

first fruits

primitial

of, like or pertaining to first fruits; primeval

primitivism

doctrine that a simple and natural life is morally best

primo

in the first place

primogenous

of, like or pertaining to the earliest or first developmental stage

princeps

first; especially first edition of a book

prion

small Antarctic petrel

priscan

ancient; of early times

prisoptometer

instrument for measuring degree of astigmatism

prithee

expssion of wish or request

privatism

attitude of avoiding involvement in outside interests

privative

indicating absence, deprivation or negation

privity

privacy; secrecy; secret or confidential conversation

pro rata

proportionally

pro tanto

to that extent; accordingly

proairesis

the act of choosing

probabiliorism

belief that when in doubt one must choose most likely answer

probabilism

belief that knowledge is always probable but never absolute

proband

one with a certain feature by which descendants analyzed

probang

flexible rod put down throat to clear obstacle

probit

unit of measurement of statistical probability

proboscidate

having a proboscis or long snout

probosciform

shaped like a long nose

probouleutic

for pliminary deliberation

procacity

petulance; insolence

procatalectic

lacking the unaccented part of first foot of a line of verse

procatalepsis

anticipating and answering an opponent’s objections

procathedral

parish church serving as a cathedral

proceleusmatic

inciting; encouraging; exhorting

procephalic

of, like or pertaining to the front of the head

prochronism

assigning a date to an event earlier than actual

procidence

prolapse; falling forward or downward

procinct

pparedness

proclisis

pronunciation of word dependent on following word

procoelous

cupped in front

procrustean

seeking to enforce uniformity

procrypsis

protective coloration

proctal

of, like or pertaining to the anus or rectum

proctology

study of rectum

proctor

disciplinary officer at a college or university

proctoscope

instrument for examining the rectum

procumbent

lying or leaning forward; prone

procuratory

authorization to act for another

procursive

running forward

procyonine

of, like or pertaining to raccoons

prodrome

initial symptom of a disease; introductory treatise

proeguminal

pdisposing; pceding

proemial

introductory; pfatory

proemptosis

addition of extra day to lunar calendar every 300 years

proethnic

of, like or pertaining to primitive races

profectitious

derived from a parent or ancestor

profligate

debauched; rashly extravagant

profluent

exuberant; abundant

profulgent

shining out; radiant

progeria

second childhood; disease of pmature aging

prognathic

having a jaw that projects forward

projacient

jutting forward

projectionism

theory that some apparent qualities of reality are projections of the mind

projicient

communicating between an organism and its environment

prolate

having flattened sides due to lengthwise elongation

prolative

indicating motion alongside or means of motion

prolegomenon

introductory study or treatise

prolepsis

anticipation; device where objections are anticipated

proleptical

phistoric

prolicide

killing of offspring; killing of the human race

proligerous

bearing offspring

prolix

long-winded; garrulous; dwelling too long on particulars

prolocutor

spokesman; speaker of the House of Lords

prolusion

pliminary performance, activity or display

promachos

champion or defender; tutelary god

promptuary

repository; reference book of facts

promulgate

make known; disseminate

pronaos

vestibule in front of a temple

pronasale

tip of the nose

pronation

turning hand and forearm so that palm faces downward

pronograde

walking with body parallel to ground

pronomination

description of a thing by its qualities rather than its proper name

propadeuctic

a pliminary study; pliminary

proper

elements of Christian mass that are variable

prophetocracy

government by a prophet

propine

to pledge in drinking; to psent or offer

propinquity

closeness

propitiate

to render favourable; to appease

proplasm

pliminary model or mould

propolis

resin of tree buds collected by bees

proprioception

sense of muscular position

proreption

prorogue

to discontinue meetings of a group without dissolving it

prosateur

one who writes prose for a living

proscenium

part of the stage in front of the curtain

prosector

one who dissects bodies in anatomical lectures

proseuche

place of prayer; oratory

prosilient

outstanding; conspicuous; jumping forth

prosit

toast to good health

prosodemic

contagious; infectious

prosodic

of, like or pertaining to versification

prosody

study of versification

prosopic

of, like or pertaining to the face

prosopography

biographical sketch; description of person

prosopography

description of an inpidual’s life, character, or physical form

prosopopoeia

personification; repsentation of absent person as speaking

prostyle

building having columns only in the front

prosyllogism

syllogism whose conclusion forms pmise of another

protactic

pfatory; pliminarily explanatory

protanopia

colour-blindness with respect to red

protasis

first clause in a conditional expssion; introductory part of a play

protean

variable; versatile; assuming different forms

protensive

extensive in time or length

protervity

peevishness; petulance; perversity; wantonness

protestation

avowal or solemn declaration

prothalamion

song or poem celebrating a coming marriage

prothonotary

chief registrar of a court; keeper of canonisation records

prothysteron

putting last what normally comes first in an expssion or argument

protistology

study of protists

protocolist

registrar or clerk

protogenic

formed at the beginning

protolithic

from the earliest Stone Age

protomorphic

primordial; primitive

protopathy

first or direct experience

protoplast

original ancestor; first-formed person or thing

prototrophic

feeding directly on uncombined elements

protozeugma

zeugma in which word referring to two clauses is placed before both of them

protreptic

exhorting; encouraging; didactic; doctrinal

provand

allowance of food; provisions

provection

transfer of last letter of one word to first of next

proveditor

purveyor of supplies or goods

provenance

source; origin

provenient

issuing forth

providore

steward; quartermaster

provine

to propagate by layering

proxemics

study of man’s need for personal space

proxenete

procurer; marriage broker

proxysm

close or near relationship

pruinose

having a frosted look; bearing whitish dust

prunella

strong and heavy silk or wool

pruniferous

bearing plums

prunt

moulded glass ornament attached to a larger glass object

prurient

stemming from the indulgence of lewd ideas; lascivious

prurigo

irritating skin disease causing itching

pruritus

itching of the skin

psalligraphy

the art of paper-cutting to make pictures

psalmodist

singer of psalms

psalmody

act of singing psalms in church services

psalmography

art of composing psalms

psaltery

ancient stringed musical instrument

psammite

fine-grained rock

psammophile

sand-loving plant

psellism

defect in articulation or pronunciation

psephitic

of, like or pertaining to pebbles

psephocracy

government resulting from election by ballot

psephology

study of election results and voting trends

psephomancy

pination by drawing lots or markers at random

pseudacusis

mistaken or false hearing

pseudaesthesia

imaginary feeling or sensation

pseudandry

assumption of man’s proper name by a woman

pseudaposematic

imitating the coloration of a dangerous animal

pseudepigrapha

apocrypha; non-canonical books of the Bible

pseudepigraphy

assignment of false authors to books

pseudepigraphy

false attribution of authorship

pseudepiscopy

existence or rule of a spurious bishop

pseudoautochiria

murder disguised as suicide

pseudoblepsis

imaginary or false vision; hallucination

pseudochromaesthesia

mental association of sounds with colours

pseudochronism

error in dating

pseudocide

ptended attempt at suicide

pseudodox

false doctrine or opinion

pseudography

unsatisfactory spelling

pseudography

false, incorrect, or spurious spelling

pseudogyny

adoption of woman’s name by a man

pseudohermaphroditism

condition in which sex chromosomes and genitals are of different sexes

pseudolalia

incoherence of speech

pseudolatry

false worship

pseudologia

lying in speech or writing

pseudologue

pathological liar

pseudology

art or science of lying

pseudomania

irrational pdilection for lying

pseudomorph

false or abnormal physical form

pseudonymuncle

lesser or minor writer who uses a pseudonym

pseudophonia

suicide disguised as murder

pseudopsia

optical illusion

pseudoptics

study of optical illusions

pseudosmia

false perception of odours

pseudosopher

one who ptends to hold knowledge or wisdom

pseudosophy

ptension to wisdom

psilanthropism

denial of Christ’s pinity

psilosophy

shallow philosophy; limited knowledge

psilothrum

substance causing loss of hair

psithurism

whispering noise; sound of leaves moving in the wind

psittacine

of, like or pertaining to macaws, parakeets or parrots

psittacism

parrot-like repetition of speech

psittacistically

mechanically; in a parrotlike fashion

psomophagy

swallowing food without thorough chewing

psophometer

instrument measuring audible interference of electrical current

psychaesthesia

sensation in relation to feeling or thought

psychagogic

attractive; encouraging

psychagogue

conductor of souls to the underworld

psychalgia

mental pain or distress

psychiasis

healing of the soul or psyche

psychism

belief in universal soul

psychobiology

study of biology of the mind

psychodynamic

concerning psychological motives and causation

psychofugal

proceeding outward from a mental state

psychogenesis

origin and development of the mind

psychogenetics

study of internal or mental states

psychognosy

study of mentality, personality or character

psychogony

development of the mind or soul

psychogram

writing supposedly produced under influence of spirits

psychograph

instrument that supposedly records spirit messages

psychography

production of writing purportedly by a spiritual entity

psychologism

theory that mathematical or metaphysical laws can be derived from psychology

psychomachy

conflict between the body and the soul

psychomancy

pination by means of spirits

psychometry

measurement of intelligence and psychological attributes

psychomorphism

doctrine that inanimate objects have human mentality

psychoneuroendocrinology

study of relationship between the mind, the nervous system, and the endocrine

psychopannychism

belief souls sleep from death to resurrection

psychopathology

study of mental illness

psychophysics

study of link between mental and physical processes

psychorrhagy

separation of the soul from the body

psychosomatic

of a physical disorder, having a psychological cause

psychosophy

doctrine or theory of the soul

psychotaxis

alteration of mental outlook to satisfy the personality

psychotheism

doctrine that God is a purely spiritual entity

psychroaesthesia

sensation of cold in part of body that is actually warm

psychrolusia

bathing in cold water

psychrometer

instrument for measuring air moisture or temperature

psychrophilic

thriving in cold temperatures

psychrophobia

fear of the cold

psychurgy

mental function, operation or energy

ptarmic

substance that causes sneezing

pteric

of, like or pertaining to the wing or the shoulder

pteridology

study of ferns

pteridomania

passion for ferns

pterography

treatise or description of feathers

pteronophobia

fear of being tickled by feathers

pteropine

of, like or pertaining to flying foxes

pterospermous

having winged seeds

pterygium

abnormal mass of tissue obstructing vision in the eye

pteryla

patch or clump of feathers on a bird

pterylography

treatise on the feathers of birds

pterylology

study of distribution of feathers on birds

ptilosis

plumage or mode of feathering; plumage

ptochocracy

government by beggars or paupers; wholesale pauperization

ptochogony

production of beggars; pauperization

ptosis

drooping of the upper eyelid

ptyalagogue

substance that promotes salivation

ptyalism

excessive flow of saliva

pubarche

first appearance of pubic hair

puberulent

feebly or minutely pubescent; covered with minute down

pubigerous

hairy; bearing or growing hair

puccoon

blood-root; dark red colour

puce

brownish-purple; purplish-pink

puckery

astringent; tending to wrinkle

pudendum

external female reproductive organs

pudibund

shamefaced; prudish

pudu

small Chilean deer

puericulture

child-rearing

puerperal

of, like or pertaining to childbirth

pug

ground clay mixed with water

pugil

small handful; pinch

pugioniform

dagger-shaped

puisne

inferior in rank; later; junior

puissant

powerful; mighty

puku

red Central African antelope

pule

to pipe; to whimper or whine

pulicine

of, like or pertaining to fleas

pullastrine

of, like or pertaining to pigeons

pulley-piece

armour for the knee

pullulate

to swarm; to teem; to breed freely; to sprout

pulmonic

of, like or pertaining to the lungs

pulpitum

gigantic stone screen separating cathedral choir from the nave

pulsimeter

instrument for measuring the pulse

pultaceous

macerated and softened; like porridge; pulpy

pulverous

dusty or powder

pulverulent

dusty-looking; readily crumbling; powdery

pulvil

perfumed powder

pulvillar

cushion-like

pulvilli

pulvilliform

shaped like a cushion

pulvinated

cushion-like; bulging; pillowy

punalua

marriage of brothers of one family to sisters of another

puncheon

tool for punching or stamping

punctate

dotted; pitted

punctatim

point for point

punctiform

shaped like a point

punctilio

minor detail or point of conduct

punctilious

scrupulous and exact

punctiuncle

insignificant or trifling point of an argument

punctulate

bearing small spots or dots

punctule

minute dot, pit or aperture

punctus

point used in medieval manuscripts to indicate a short pause

pundigrion

play on words; pun

punditocracy

government by political pundits

pundonor

point of honour

puniceous

bright or purplish red

punk

dry decayed wood used for tinder

punnet

small shallow fruit basket

pupate

to pass through a chrysalis stage

pupigerous

bearing a puparium

pupillarity

the state of being a pupil

pupillography

examination and description of the pupil of the eye

purfle

to ornament the edge of with embroidery

purificator

cloth used to wipe Eucharist chalice

purlicue

curl or flourish in writing; summary of speeches

purlieu

a person’s usual haunts; neighbourhood

purline

supporting timber stretching across rafters

purloin

to steal; to filch

purpsture

encroachment on public property

purpure

heraldic colour purple

purser

ship’s officer in charge of finances and passengers

pursuivant

follower or attendant

purulence

the quality of being filled with pus

pushful

energetically or aggressively enterprising

pusillanimous

lacking firmness; cowardly; having a weak character

pustule

pimple containing pus; lump or wart

putanism

lewdness in women; prostitution

putative

supposed; reputed

putcher

wire trap for catching salmon

puteal

wall round the top of a well

putlock

cross-piece in a scaffolding

putois

brush for painting pottery

putrilage

products or remnants of decay

putto

plump naked winged boy in artwork

puture

foresters’ claim of subsistence within bounds of forest

puy

small volcanic cone

pycnometer

instrument for measuring specific gravity or density

pycnomorphous

compact; dense

pycnostyle

having closely spaced columns

pyelography

examination of the kidney and ureter

pygal

belonging to the rump end; pertaining to the rump

pygmachy

boxing; fighting with clubs

pyknic

characterized by short squat stature

pyknometer

instrument for measuring specific gravities

pyoid

purulent; pus-like

pyramidography

treatise on the Egyptian pyramids

pyranometer

instrument measuring solar radiation from the sky’s whole hemisphere

pyretic

of, pertaining to or for the cure of fevers

pyretology

study of fevers

pyrgeometer

instrument for measuring radiation from earth

pyrgoidal

tower-shaped

pyrgology

study of towers

pyrheliometer

instrument for measuring heating effect of sun

pyriform

shaped like a pear

pyritiferous

bearing pyrite

pyroballogy

study of artillery

pyroclastics

ash and other material released by volcano

pyrogenation

subjection to heat

pyrogenous

produced by or producing heat or fever

pyrognomic

easily made incandescent

pyrography

study of woodburning; writing using hot instrument

pyrokinesis

ability to start fires using mind alone

pyrolatry

fire-worship

pyromachy

use of fire in combat

pyromancy

pination using fire

pyrometer

instrument for measuring very high temperatures

pyrophanous

becoming transparent when heated

pyrophobia

fear of fire

pyrophorus

substance that spontaneously combusts

pyroscope

instrument for measuring intensity of radiant heat

pyrosophy

knowledge of the properties of fire

pyrrhic

of, like or pertaining to the dance or to the foot

pyrrhonism

total or radical skepticism

pyrrhotism

state of being red-haired

pyrrhous

reddish; ruddy

pyrrhuline

of, like or pertaining to bullfinches

pysmatic

questioning; interrogatory

pythogenic

produced by filth; causing dirt or decay

pythonic

like an oracle or a python

pythonism

possession by an oracular spirit

pyx

box or vessel in which coins or consecrated Eucharist are kept

pyxis

little box or casket for jewels or toiletries

【#6】Positive Words That Start With P

Having a positive vocabulary is positively pleasing! Not only can you compliment your pcious pals, you can let a partner know when they are being particularly personable. Keep reading to find P words of various lengths that are sure to perk up your paragraphs!

Positive P word Prodigy

Positive Words That Have 5 or Fewer Letters

Positive words don’t have to be long to be palatable! There are plenty of short, peppy words that bring peace to everyday writing. Here are some P words that contain 5 or fewer letters.

Positive Words That Have 6 Letters

Need to pacify a professor with a personal paper? Or are you offering poetic praise to a patron? No matter the reason, these 6-letter words that start with P are great additions to your writing.

Positive Words That Have 7 Letters

Be the paragon of positivity with these longer words. There’s no need to be perfect when you’re a pioneering prodigy!

Positive Words That Have 8 Letters

Your writing can be a prolific paradise when you strike a positive tone. Keep these pleasing words of patience in mind the next time you need to describe yourself or a pcious peer.

Positive Words That Have 9 Letters

If you’d like to push the parameters of your paragraphs, read these 9-letter positive P words. Your plentiful writing will be much more than palatable – it will be paramount!

Positive Words That Have 10 or More Letters

Keep that perseverance up in your persuasive essays. Words with 10 letters or more are impssive to even the most perceptive readers. Whether you’re a passionate publisher or a progressing professional, these words will make you sound prosaically prosperous.

Using Positive P Words in a Sentence

If you’re still looking for inspiration, try using these P words in a sentence. They’re perfect for self-assessments, biographies, professional statements, and more. For example:

  • Evelyn always sees possibility and potential in her team members.
  • In the last five years, I have positively contributed to our company becoming more prosperous and progressive.
  • Jace is passionate about early childhood education, which led to his professional dedication to pschool programs.
  • You would love my friend Janice; she is so personable that she makes friends wherever she goes.
  • As a musical prodigy, Lloyd owed much of his success to his philanthropic patrons.

The Benefits of Kind Language

Speaking kindly about yourself and others makes your reader want to read more. If you struggle with describing yourself in a positive way, check out an article about the five personality traits that super happy people tend to have. You might find more positivity than you think!

【#7】How To Write A Strong Conclusion Paragraph

All’s well that ends well… including your essay! Writing a strong conclusion paragraph for your college essay is important if you want to leave a positive lasting impssion on your reader.

Once you’ve laid out a solid introduction and supported your ideas with quality details, you want to finish strong by wrapping up your thoughts perfectly.

But how?

The conclusion paragraph, in theory, seems like the easiest part of an essay to write..really, you’re just wrapping up thoughts you’ve already written. But conclusions ( and introductions) are sometimes the trickiest parts of an essay to get right.

Learning how to write a conclusion takes practice, but there are many tips to help guide you through the process. With a few hints about what to do (and what not to do), you’ll be crafting stellar conclusions in no time!

Why does a conclusion paragraph matter?

Your conclusion is your final word in the argument you’ve written out. It can inspire your reader to see things from a different point of view or challenge the reader to open his mind to new ideas. It also serves as a reminder of everything the reader has just learned and ties together all of the points you’ve made.

You want to craft your last words well so that people take something important away from what you’ve written. It should also provide an understanding of your topic as a whole and how all of the different claims you’ve made in your essay connect back to your central argument.

How should I format a conclusion paragraph?

There are some basic formulas that fit in with a standard college essay format that can help you get started on laying out your final thoughts.

Most conclusion paragraphs are four to five sentences long and should average between 50-75 words. They should be long enough to get your point across, but short enough that you’re not rehashing every idea you’ve ever had on the subject.

Conclusion paragraphs begin by revisiting the main idea definition. The first sentence reminds the reader of what this has all been about. This sentence revisits your thesis statement or main topic.

The next two to three sentences tie together the main points you have used to support your thesis or central topic. Finally, your closing sentence is where you drive home the meat of your message and leave a lasting impssion on the reader.

What should I include in my conclusion?

Every conclusion is trying to accomplish similar goals: making a lasting and positive impssion on the reader, tying all of the pieces of an essay’s argument together, and making the reader think. But the road to these goals can take many different directions.

There are a lot of options as to what to include in your conclusion. Here are a few to consider:

  1. A connection to your hook.

    If you began your essay with a hook to get your reader’s interest, you can tie back into it at the end. Did you start off with a question? Provide the answer. Did you tell the beginning of a story? Let them know the ending.

    Using a hook is a great tactic to start a paper, and tying it into your conclusion artfully is an easy way to end your paper.

  2. An answer to the question “So what?”

    When you can’t think of what to say, ptend to be your reader and ask yourself, “So what?” When the reader reaches the end of your essay, they should completely understand your essay’s purpose. Why should they care about the argument you’ve been making?

    Take your main idea and ask, “So what?” Then keep digging deeper until you have the ultimate takeaway from what you’ve been trying to expss.

  3. A solution. Or a challenge to the reader to think of a solution.

    If your essay involves a problem or an issue that needs to be solved, you can end with an answer to that problem. If it seems unsolvable, you can end with options that might get people closer to solving the issue.

  4. A poignant quote.

    If there’s a powerful quote that adds substance to your essay, feel free to add it. But it has to be relevant and tie together your concluding thoughts (and of course, give credit to the author).

What should I avoid in my conclusion?

You don’t want to put all of your hard work into a powerful introduction and fantastic body paragraphs, just to tank it in the end with a conclusion that goes way off course.

Be sure to avoid these common errors:

  1. Repeating your introduction as your conclusion.

    Although it’s good practice to revisit your thesis statement or main ideas in your conclusion, make sure you rephrase your thoughts and psent them in a slightly different light. You want to connect to your opening and reflect on it, but you don’t want it to be exactly the same.

  2. Introducing a completely new idea for the first time in the conclusion.

    After you’ve organized your ideas and made your claims, it’s very confusing to the reader if you throw in a random new idea at the end of the essay. It may seem like an exciting twist, but really, it’s just poor organization. Keep your focus on the main argument throughout the essay, especially when you are wrapping it all up.

  3. Using boring phrases to start your conclusion.

    In summary… In conclusion… These phrases (and others like these) have no place in a conclusion paragraph. Let your ideas and creative wording guide the reader to realize you’re wrapping up your thoughts.

  4. Changing your tone.

    The tone of your essay should be consistent throughout. If you’re very scientific in your entire essay, don’t end it in a really conversational tone. If your tone is very friendly and laid-back, don’t get extremely serious and judgmental in your conclusion. Whoever you are in the introduction, that voice should be clearly echoed in the conclusion.

  5. Rambling.

    Be succinct. This is not the time to start listing random thoughts or coming up with supporting details that really should have already been mentioned in pvious paragraphs. Nor is it the time to restate the same idea over and over.

There are a lot of things to consider when concluding your essay. You want to hit the highlights, make people think, and leave them with a positive impssion of what they have just read. You only have one chance to wrap things up nicely for your reader. Make your conclusion succinct, thought-provoking and powerful.

【#8】Best Words To Describe Yourself On A Resume

Most hiring managers spend an average of 6 seconds scanning through a resume. If your resume doesn’t grab their attention, you won’t get an interview.

There are over one million words in the English language. It would seem next to impossible to know the best words to describe yourself on a resume. You want to capture attention, set yourself apart, drive interest, and communicate with clear commanding language.

So how do you beat the odds and capture their interest?

Here’s how to use power words to create an attention-grabbing resume that helps you get hired.

Action Verbs

Do you want to be Joe Schmoo or do you want to be a celebrity in your field? The words you use on your resume and cover letter make all the difference.

If you want your resume to have more impact, you need to use action verbs. What is an action verb you wonder? Action verbs describe what the subject of a sentence is doing.

For example instead of saying “Responsible for planning and holding weekly meetings.”

Use a more powerful action verb, “Arranged and organized weekly team meetings.”

Responsible for is very weak. It doesn’t show your strengths.

Arranged and organized are strong, action verbs that show you achieved something worthy.

Here are some ordinary verbs and some compelling ways to power them up.

  • Cut costs: decreased, streamlined, economized, reduced expenses, controlled costs

  • Led: orchestrated, conducted, directed, spearheaded

  • Created: designed, crafted, developed, formulated, conceptualized

  • Boosted: increase, accelerate, drive, improve, optimize

  • Trained: facilitated, educated, instructed, taught, guided, coached

What tips would you give to optimize a resume?

Top Words By Industry

Start by thinking about the industry you are in. These words are a list of skills and experiences employers are seeking.

Here are a few examples.

  • Sales – relationship building, negotiation, persuasive communication, prospecting, closing, territory development

  • Management – leadership, supervisory skills, coaching, mentoring

  • Marketing – SEO, conversion optimization, email marketing, content marketing

Finding these industry-related keywords is easier than you think. Just do a quick Google search for the job openings in that industry. Read the job descriptions and look for any keywords that stand-out. Jot down any that describe the qualifications and skills that you have. Then include these keywords in your resume. When you know what your potential employers are looking for, it’s easy to reverse engineer your resume to show you are a perfect match for their needs.

Rev Up Your Resume With Powerful Adjectives

When you are writing your resume you want to come across as a rock star, but not sound like a commercial. You need to strike that perfect balance between strong and enticing and blatantly promotional. Choosing the right adjectives for your resume summary statement and the body of your resume will help you find that sweet spot.

Employers are looking to attract and retain top talent. Leadership shows that you have initiative and can drive results for their organization.

You don’t want to use the word leadership over and over. You want to vary it a bit. Here are some words to describe your leadership qualities. Below are a couple of examples.

Leadership Adjectives:

Teamwork Adjectives

If you are having a hard time thinking of the right word to use, a thesaurus can be a huge help. For example, if you don’t want to say “write” for the 3rd time, you can find other words like develop, craft, and create to mix it up.

Tips For Incorporate Power Words

  1. Prefer brevity. Short pithy sentences beat longer sentences. Simple direct sentences have more power.

  2. One line. Try not to have bullet points wrap around. Shorten them to one line if possible.

  3. Eliminate any widows. A widow is a single word that is wrapped around and is alone on the next line. Don’t do this

    Spearheaded initiative to go green and eliminate delivery truck gas emotions by August

    2021

Include ATS Friendly Words in Your Resume

You may have the best resume in the world, but if your resume is not ATS friendly, it may never be seen by the potential employer. ATS stands for applicant tracking system and is the robo filter that companies use to handle large amounts of resumes – you need to make it past the filter to be seen.

If you want to get your resume seen, you’ll want to include the right ATS keywords. You write resumes both for people and for the applicant tracking system. Many bigger companies scan and search through resumes pulling top applicants to the top. If your resume doesn’t make it through the ATS system, it may never be seen by a recruiter or hiring manager.

The keywords that the ATS system checks for are determined by the future employer. That’s why it’s important to closely read a job description, look for keywords, and include these keywords in your resume.

Job-seekers: if your resume is a match for the criteria, it will be passed through for viewing.

If your resume is not a match for the criteria, then it will be rejected.

Cover Letter Power Words

What’s your opening line? A clever pick-up line has the power to impss someone you want to meet at your favorite night club. The same is true of an opening line on your cover letter.

You want to grab the attention of the hiring manager so that they keep on reading.

Start the cover letter with a greeting. Dear Mr. Robinson. It’s always best to get the hiring person’s name rather than using the Dear Hiring Manager as an opener.

Tell your employer what position you are applying for in the first sentence and where you saw the job listing.

In the body of the cover letter, you’ll want to highlight your top accomplishments and relevant experience for this position that enable you to succeed in this role. Don’t just rehash everything on your resume. Use this space to share your personality, passions, and how you can make a difference at their company.

Share a call to action in the last paragraph and how and when you can move forward to further discuss your qualifications for the role.

Sign the letter “Sincerely” and your name.

Resume Killing Phrases to Avoid

You know the feeling you get when your parents try to use phrases to be cool? Like when your mom is hanging out with you and your friends and says something is “sick”. It’s kind of icky, inappropriate, and disgusting. That’s how hiring managers feel when you use buzzwords on a resume.

Are resume buzzwords worth it? Many of these phrases were cool in their day, but now, these cliches have seriously lost their staying power and it’s time to retire them.

Are you guilty of using any of the following outdated terms?

Here are the resume buzzwords and things to avoid putting on a resume.

If you don’t want to make recruiters cringe, explain what you mean in engaging conversational language. Don’t lean on these overused terms.

Stand Out At Your Job Interview Using Power Words Too!

Hiring managers want to know how your skills and experiences can translate into results for their company. But fluffy self-flattering words don’t carry much weight. They are listening for traits that will make a difference for their bottom line.

Here are some powerful words and phrases to use during your job interview.

  • Explain how you took leadership in your pvious positions.

  • Tell them the measurable results you achieved in your accomplishments.

  • Reveal projects where you took initiative.

  • Share what makes you passionate and motivated about your work.

  • Tell them about any management and supervisory job experience you had.

  • Add examples of where you led strategy or planning for a project.

  • Tell about situations where you influenced, persuaded, or negotiated.

  • Show them where you have been a team player and collaborated.

  • Discuss how you resonate with the company values and culture to show you are a fit.

Tap into the Power of Words to Help Your Resume Stand Out

The devil they say is in the details. After you write your resume take time to carefully review it. The little touches you add can help your resume and cover letter to really shine. Do your research to find important keywords for your industry. Add strong verbs.

Rock your resume out with some attention-grabbing adjectives. Scan for buzzwords that you can eliminate. Then make sure it’s ATS friendly.

Follow these steps and you’ll have a job-winning resume in no time flat! Good luck with your search for your dream job.

【#9】25+ Words That Start With X: Adjectives, Nouns, Verbs

For most writers using words starting with ‘x’ has never been at the top of their list. Words beginning with x are the least used words by writers. Who can blame them? When we can only expect 0.02% of the words in the dictionary to be listed under ‘x’. If you were told to think of at least 10 words beginning with x, what would you say? X-ray, xylophone, anything else? These are likely to be the common words that you are taught as a kid, but did you know that there are around 400 ‘x’ words in the Oxford English Dictionary today? It’s time to start improving your vocabulary with these 12+ words beginning with X and how they can be used in a sentence:

Table of Contents:

Common words that start with X

Before we jump into the complex words starting with X – Let’s take a look at some easy words that start with X. Here are common X words you should be familiar with:

  • X: A verb it can mean to cross out or delete something. I will have to x out this mistake you made on your application.
  • Xi: The 14th letter in the Greek alphabet. As a number XI repsents the number 60 in Greek.
  • XO: To give kisses and hugs. XO, to my darling old friend.
  • Xylophone: A musical instrument. I love playing with the xylophone!
  • XYZ: When giving an example or talking about something in general. Let’s say that company XYZ is releasing a new product – What should they do?

Adjectives that start with X

Looking for words that start with X to describe someone or something. Here are some adjectives starting with X, along with definitions:

Skills that start with X

When you enter the workplace, you may become familiar with more words starting with X. Especially if you plan on coding in the workplace. Here are some examples of skills starting with X that you might require:

  • XHTML: A programming language which expands from the HTML coding language. I’m an expert in many programming languages including XHTML, PHP and .NET.
  • XML: Another programming language used on websites.
  • XSLT: Yet another programming language.
  • Xylography: The skill of engraving patterns and artwork on wood. Xylography is my secret passion in my spare time.

Verbs that start with X

It’s difficult to find suitable verbs that start with X. Here are the most commonly used verbs that start with X, along with sentences and definitions:

Nouns that start with X

Here are some easy nouns that start with X, along with their definitions and usage in sentences:

Activities starting with X

Games and activities are a fun way to pass the time. But have you ever considered doing an A-Z of activities? Here are some super cool activities that start with X to get you inspired:

X Words for Kindergarten

Here are some easy words starting with X for kindergarten through first grade:

  • Xylophone: Musical instrument with bars.
  • X-ray: Used to take pictures of bones by doctors.
  • X-ray Fish: A fish that looks like an X-ray image – You can see its bones!
  • Xmas: Can’t spell Christmas, then Xmas is okay too!

Fun X words For Kids:

We know that kids love learning about animals, especially dinosaurs or endangered species! Here are some fun X words for kids, which they can try using in class:

Top Words Starting with X

1. X: As a verb, it can mean to cross out or delete something.

Sentence: I will have to x out this mistake you made on your application.

2. Xenophobia: A fear of strangers or something that is foreign.

Sentence: Anyone who has issues with immigration, clearly suffers from xenophobia.

3. Xenial: Adjective used to describe a friendly relationship between a host and their guests.

Sentence: He came across very xenial at the party last night.

4. Xylography: The art of engraving on wood.

Sentence: In the 18 th century, xylography was a commendable career choice.

5. Xanthippe: The wife of Socrates, also referring to an ill-tempered lady.

Sentence: The house is going down, whether ‘Xanthippe’ over there likes it or not!

6. Xenomorphic: Having an unusual or strange form.

Sentence: Who knew, something so xenomorphic could be so beautiful?

7. Xylophonic: Describing the sound made by xylophones.

Sentence: There was a strange xylophonic sound coming from the basement.

8. Xilinous: Something that feels or resembles cotton.

Sentence: It’s lovely to see a xilinous industry like this thriving again.

9. Xanthic: Adjective describing something as yellow or yellowish.

Sentence: Despite their efforts to paint the fence brown, it still has a xanthic hue.

10. Xiphophyllous: Having sword-shaped like leaves.

Sentence: The mountains formed a xiphophyllous p from afar.

11. Xenodochial: Being friendly to strangers.

Sentence: A shop keeper must at all times be xenodochial to be able to deal with difficult customers.

12. Xerothermic: An adjective used to describe dry and hot climates.

Sentence: A xerothermic climate is perfect for plants, such as the cacti.

Easy Words with X in them

Words beginning with X can be very difficult to use daily. To improve your vocabulary slowly try using these words with X in them every day. This list includes 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7,8 and 9 letter words in order:

Now that you have learned some new words beginning with x, will you be using more in your stories? You could sign up to our free community to write a story online and share it with the world!

In the meantime, why not take a look at our post, 25 of the funniest words in the English Language.

【#10】351 Strong Verbs To Make Your Writing Pop, Fizz And Sparkle

Why do the words jump off this page?

Why does this writing feel energetic and strong?

Why is it so fast-paced?

And do you wonder why your draft text seems a tad limp in comparison?

It happens to all of us.

First drafts often require an injection of power and pizzazz. First drafts are full of weak verbs, and weak verbs make your writing limp, flabby, and listless.

In contrast, strong verbs add action, vitality, color, and zest. So, the “secret” to writing with gusto is to choose stronger verbs.

What are strong verbs?

Strong verbs engage your senses, and help readers picture a scene (verbs in bold):

You feel the air reverberating when he slams his fist on the table. The teacups jiggle, his face reddens, and his voice thunders.

Strong verbs allow readers to visualize actions. Instead of only reading words, they’re drawn into your writing, experiencing your story.

But strong verbs don’t need to convey powerful action. Subtle action can evoke powerful feelings, too. For instance:

He cradles the baby, strokes her dark hair, tickles her chin, and hums a lullaby.

Strong verbs are pcise and concrete. In contrast, weak verbs are abstract and generic-they don’t help you visualize a scene. Examples of weak verbs are “to be,” “to provide,” “to add,” and “to utilize.” You can’t picture these words.

You can’t picture “provide feedback,” but you can visualize “shouting,” “lecturing,” and “scribbling.”

Strong verbs breathe life into abstract ideas

Over the weekend, I read Ray Bradbury’s “Zen in the Art of Writing.” I enjoyed his word choice, and I loved how his verbs breathe life into abstract concepts, like storytelling and the Muse.

For instance, he describes how he started writing stories based on lists of nouns:

And the stories began to burst, to explode from those memories, hidden in the nouns, lost in the lists.

And he writes about the Muse:

The Muse, then, is the most terrified of all the virgins. She starts if she hears a sound, pales if you ask her questions, spins and vanishes if you disturb her dress.

And on eating books:

I tore out the pages, ate them with salt, doused them with relish, gnawed on the bindings, turned the chapters with my tongue!

Strong verbs in business writing

You might think strong verbs are only for fiction writers.

But that’s untrue.

Here’s Nancy Duarte in her book ” Resonate ” (about engaging your audience with story-based psentations):

Throughout history, psenter-to-audience exchanges have rallied revolutions, spad innovation, and spawned movements.

And:

When a great story is told, we lean forward, and our hearts race as the story unfolds.

And:

Haven’t you often wished you could make customers, employees, investors, or students snap, crackle, pop, and move to the new place they need to be in order to create a new future?

Here’s an example of Apple’s copy:

So whether you’re listening to music, watching videos, or making speakerphone calls, iPhone 7 lets you crank it up. Way, way up.

And:

Apple Watch Series 2 counts more than just steps. It tracks all the ways you move throughout the day, whether you’re walking between meetings, doing cartwheels with your kids, or hitting the gym.

“To do” in the last sentence is, of course, a weak verb. Apple’s copywriters could have changed “doing cartwheels with your kids” into “cartwheeling with your kids” without disrupting the rhythm and making the sentence stronger.

It is nouns and verbs, not their assistants, that give good writing its toughness and color.

~ Strunk and White (in the Elements of Style)

How to choose strong verbs

No clear distinction exists between strong and weak verbs. It’s a gliding scale, and it’s up to you as a writer to decide how strong you’d like your verbs to be.

For instance, “to walk” is stronger than “to go” because it gives you an indication of how someone moved. But stronger options would be: to saunter, to hike, to shuffle, to trudge, to stride, or to plod. Each of these verbs gives you an indication of how someone walked:

  • to saunter: picture a girl walking rather leisurely, perhaps peeking into the shop windows
  • to hike: picture a woman in walking boots with a backpack, walking at a good pace
  • to shuffle: picture an elderly woman moving ahead gingerly, hardly lifting her feet
  • to trudge: picture a girl in wellies making a big effort, perhaps walking through the snow or mud
  • to stride: picture a lady walking as if on the catwalk, with long strides
  • to plod: picture a tired woman with sagging shoulders, walking rather tiredly

Strong verbs can also be used for abstract language. For instance, you could say you generated ideas during your brainstorm session. But how did your ideas arrive? For instance:

  • A few ideas popped into your mind
  • Your mind exploded with ideas
  • A stream of ideas burst forward
  • Ideas first trickled, then gushed forth
  • The brainstorm session spawned a stream of ideas

Strong verbs are more pcise than weak verbs; they can paint clear pictures-even of abstract activities like thinking and generating ideas.

How to play with your verbs

While quietly sitting at her wooden desk, she slowly formulated her thoughts and worked really hard to write her blog post. The next day she felt apphensive and nervously hit publish. Would her audience be interested enough to read her content word-by-word?

To add energy to the text, the first step is to strip the content back to its bare bones:

While quietly sitting at her wooden desk, she slowly formulated her thoughts and worked really hard to write her blog post. The next day she felt apphensive and nervously hit publish. Would her audience be interested enough to read her content word-by-word?

The stripped down version lacks nuance and color. So, let’s try stronger verbs and add a little context:

For hours, she sat at her desk. She wracked her brain, and slaved over her words to produce a blog post. And the next day? She hit publish with trepidation. Would her audience gobble up her words?

The thesaurus is your friend. Use a thesaurus to find more pcise alternatives for weak verbs.

Your word choice shapes your voice

Finding your voice is about experimentation.

Write a first draft quickly using the words coming up into your mind.

Then, review your draft. In which sentences can you replace weak with strong verbs?

Which verbs can be more pcise? Which verbs are sensory? Which verbs have a strong emotional connotation?

Play with your words. Have fun. And discover your voice.

A list of 351 strong verbs to inspire your writing

The list below is not exhaustive as many more strong verbs exist.

You can use a thesaurus to find other strong verbs, or keep an eye out for interesting verbs while reading.

To determine whether a verb is strong, ask yourself whether the verb has a sensory connotation. Does it make you hear, feel, smell, taste or see something? Does it paint a clear picture?

Onomatopoeic verbs

Onomatopoeic words expss a sound, so they’re a sub segment of sensory verbs.

The word onomatopoeia comes from the Greek for making words-the sound has formed the word that repsents it.

Sensory verbs

Sensory verbs are strong because they paint clear pictures in readers’ minds and make them feel something.

Examples: To sparkle, to shine, to brighten, to wipe out, to muddle, to dazzle, to spark, to glow, to shimmer, to glimmer, to beam, to ripple, to tickle, to thrill, to explode, to burst, to guzzle, to gobble up, to breeze through, to drool, to spit, to roar, to thunder, to reverberate, to resonate, to rumble, to flavor, to smooth, to rub, to tremble, to whisper, to vibrate, to pulsate, to throb, to quiver, to buzz, to sip, to slurp, to slobber, to blemish, to applaud, to clash, to bounce, to blend, to shake, to savor, to tantalize, to tittilate, to pinch, to stroke, to brush, to bathe, to hose, to douse, to shower, to drench, to spray, to sprinkle, to trickle, to splash, to seep, to slide, to slump, to tumble, to nose-pe, to fly, to float, to clog, to swoop, to propel, to dig in, to dip, to surge, to wolf down, to shovel, to gulp down, to roll, to soar, to curl up, to unfold, to weave, to swipe, to tear, to polish, to pale, to vanish, to spin, to weave, to intertwine, to buckle down, to button up, to pierce, to stick to

Strong action verbs-intransitive

Action verbs propel a sentence forward, keeping readers engaged.

Instead of using weaker words like walk or move, try to describe the movement more pcisely so readers can imagine the movement.

Intransitive verbs can stand on their own, without an object. For instance, I walk is intransitive because there’s no object that is walked by me. I hit you is transitive-you are the object as you are hit by me.

Examples: To stumble, to wobble, to swing, to lurch, to glide, to zip, to sail, to crash, to pe, to tiptoe, to pussyfoot, to duck, to flip-flop, to dilly-dally, to linger, to stall, to sway, to sink, to spurt, to hurry, to dash, to nip, to race, to whiz, to flit, to chew, to stroll, to sashay, to amble, to plod, to ramble, to loiter, to meander, to roam, to snake, to gallivant, to twist, to dance, to jig, to jive, to waltz, to tango, to swirl, to hop, to trip, to skip, to whirl, to gallop, to stride, to zoom, to trot, to dart, to sprint, to shoot, to leap

Strong action verbs-transitive

Below follow examples of words related to holding, pushing, or hitting something.

You can use these verbs for both concrete and abstract concepts. For instance, you can jump-start an engine or you can jump-start your career. You can squeeze a stress ball, or you can squeeze more to-do’s into your calendar. A cow regurgitates grass, and a blogger may regurgitate worn-out topics.

Negative emotional verbs

A verb like to fail has a strong negative connotation but doesn’t necessarily paint an unambiguous or vivid picture in a reader’s mind. Failure comes in different forms-you can marginally fail an exam or your start-up can fail utterly, and the feelings associated can vary. Do you sob for days? Do you fret you’re a failure? Do you feel crippled or bruised by the failure? Do you feel devastated or shrug your shoulders?

Below follow examples of more sensory verbs with negative connotations:

Examples: To choke, to strangle, to smother, to gag, to suffocate, to throttle, to cry, to howl, to sob, to blubber, to scream, to groan, to moan, to fret, to fume, to bleed, to nag, to steal, to kidnap, to ransack, to loot, to pilfer, to plunder, to snitch, to puke, to vomit, to yelp, to bark, to growl, to grumble, to mutter, to spout, to suck, to scold, to plummet, to collapse, to skid, to agitate, to slave, to labor, to wreck, to ruin, to cripple, to devastate, to decimate, to trash, to shatter, to torpedo, to sabotage, to capsize, to maul, to crush, to slash, to bruise, to hijack

Positive emotional verbs

The verbs below paint strong positive imagery in your reader’s mind.

Your apple tree can blossom, and your blog can flourish. A magician might be spellbinding, but your blog posts can hypnotize readers, too.

Examples: To flourish, to thrive, to bloom, to blossom, to mushroom, to smile, to grin, to cheer, to raise, to boost, to lift, to bolster, to invigorate, to energize, to excite, to enliven, to fortify, to hearten, to embolden, to animate, to arouse, to hypnotize, to spellbind, to sweep off one’s feet, to fall in love, to treasure, to unclog, to clarify, to disentangle, to liberate, to relieve, to release, to unshackle, to cuddle, to nestle, to huddle, to snuggle, to embrace, to hug, to kiss, to massage, to cradle, to enfold, to envelop, to sprout

Note: This post was originally published on 14 February 2021; an expanded version was published on 12 June 2021.